Narberth, Nash,  Nevern, Newcastle Emlyn, Newgale, New Moat, Newport, Newton North, Neyland and Llanstadwell, (See Llanstadwell)  Nolton, Nolton Haven.

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Narberth    (110147)    [Jottings]

Yn Arberth.            

Acc/to South Pembrokeshire Place Names - P Valentine Harris.

Narberth. c. 1100, Mabinogion, Arberth. 1248 - 49, Nerberd. Then is attracted from yn, in yn Arberth or  from atten,  at, atten Arberth. From W. perthi, slope clothed in bushes.  

Originally a defended castle town, this is now a thriving service centre for a large area of eastern Pembrokeshire. The castle dating from 1246 is in ruins and is not open to the public. There are some fine buildings in the town including the Town Hall and Magistrates Court. The church tower dates from the 1200s, but the rest was rebuilt in 1879. There are a number of interesting craft workshops in the town.  

The town could be of either Welsh or English foundation.  

Narberth Castle at south end of town.  

Tony Roberts 1989.

Castle here was burnt by the Welsh in 1116, but the surviving remains today are probably from a successor castle built by the Normans some time before 1250. The present remains were probably preceded by what is now called Sentence Castle, a few miles south near Templeton. There was also an attack on the castle in 1257. Narberth  Castle was a rough rectangular enclosure with four corner towers. The entire north side and the gatehouse have vanished. A great hall lay between the two southern towers and was at right-angles to a great chamber over a fine vaulted store-room, which still remains.  

Readers of the Mabinogion; the famous collection of Welsh folk tales, will recall that Pwyll, prince of Dyfed, held his splendid court at Arberth, the Welsh name for Narberth, and from there he and his court went hunting in the valley of Cych, where many adventures took place.

The castle had very little later history. In 1516 it was given by Henry VII to Sir Rhys ap Thomas, but when his grandson was executed in 1531, it reverted to the Crown and was allowed to decay. The castle is on private ground but can be viewed from the road.  

Introducing West Wales. - Maxwell Frazer  1956.  

Henry IV granted Narberth Castle for life to Sir Thomas Carew who lived there and maintained 10 men at arms there plus 20 bowmen. The wages 12d per day for each man-at-arms and 6d per day per bowman.  

Introducing West Wales. - Maxwell Frazer  1956.  

Narberth forest was south of Narberth. Once hunting ground of the Knights of St John of Slebech. In the reign of James I it was still stocked with red deer and provided large quantities of oak for the Navy.  

Acc/to South Pembrokeshire. - Mrs Mary Mirehouse.                                    

Perrot, Sir Stephen, 1183 Narberth married Eleanor ap Merchion of Jestynton  and thus obtained estates in the Castlemartin Hundred South Pembrokeshire.  

In an extent of the bishop of St Davids manor of Narberth made in 1337, four grist mills and one fulling mill appear. The pandy does not appear in the Black book in 1326. (cal Public Records relating to Pembrokeshire II 80).  

The town of Narberth is built on rising ground just to the north of a small tributary of the Eastern Cleddau.

There is no direct evidence on the origins of settlement. Following the conquest of Pembrokeshire by the Normans under Arnulf de Montgomery, Narberth is said to have been granted to Stephen Perrott. It is unlikely, however, that he constructed any fortifications here, and the castle near Arberth  was probably Sentence Castle at Templeton. Although midway between Narberth and Templeton stands the remains of another stronghold on Camp Hill which has been attributed to Perrott. It may well be that there was no castle at Narberth at that period but only at Camp Hill or Sentence Castle.

Certainly the visible masonry remains of Narberth Castle are no earlier than the late 13th or early 14th century.

Very little is known of Narberth during the medieval period beyond references to the castle. The borough seems to have come into being along with the castle, and by 1282 it had its own mill, and there was a yearly fair on the feast of St Andrews.

The church, dedicated to the same saint, also dates from the 13th Century - it appears in the Taxatio of 1291 and it gave its name to Church Street, one of the principal areas of the early town.

In 1532 there were only 30 burgages here and John Leland, four years later, noted it only as a poore village.

The principal development, in fact, was post-medieval, associated with the granting of a Thursday market in 1652, which was fostered by a certain Richard Castle. The market expanded rapidly, mainly at the expense of that at Tenby, and as a result the Tenby burgesses applied to the king in 1671 for its suppression. This was granted in 1676, but by 1688 it had been re-established. The town continued to grow steadily with the development of some local industry, principally the manufacture of hats and limestone quarrying.

This developing 17th-century town centred on the Market Square which lies immediately north of the castle gates. The population at this time has been estimated at about seven hundred, but in view of the small number of burgages recorded a century earlier before the granting of the market it seems unlikely that there was much settlement along the High Street and St James Street during the medieval period. Indeed, the early town may not have been little more than a cluster of dwellings along Church Street, Castle Street, and Picton Place, with what was later to be the Market Square representing the northern limits of development.  

Acc/to Medieval Buildings - published by Preseli District Council.

Plas Farmhouse - limestone building probably 16c, close to St Andrews Church - much altered in detail  has one corbelled chimney on the south wall, the remains of another, together with a filled in stone mullion window on the east wall and was evidently in its day a house of importance.  

Acc/to Protestant Dissenters in Wales  1639 - 1689  - by Geraint H Jenkins.

Thomas Warren of Narberth publicly informed his parishioners that the Prayer  Book  was - a packet of lies and the Invention of Man.  

Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales - by Mike Salter  1994.

The church was heavily restored in 1879. Only the north transeptal tower, the north wall of the wide nave, and the large north chapel are likely to be medieval.  

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

The Rectory of Narberth was evidently appendant to the lordship of Narberth, as all the patrons mentioned were lords of Narberth. In the extent of the possessions of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, made in 1249, the church of  Narberth in Pembrokeshire was returned at 30 marks. - Pat. Rolls. Edw. III.

In 1291 this church was assessed at £16 for tenths to the King, the sum payable being £1 12s. - Taxatio.

Nerberch Rectoria cum Capella annexata vocata Robertston .Ecclesia cum capella ibidem ex presentacione domini Regis racione dominii sui de Nerberth predicti unde Willielmus Danger est rector habens ibidem rectoriam sive mansionem curn gleba. Et valet dicta rectoria curn omnibus emolimentis per annum xxvja. Inde sol arch diacono quolibet anne pro sinodalibus et procuracionibus vs ixd. Et quolibet tereio anno pro visitaeione ordinaria iijs iiijd. Et remanet clare £25 10s. 11d.  - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading  “Livings remaining in Charge”:- Narberth R. (St. Andrew) with the chapel of Robeston Walthan. Archidiac. quolibet anno, 5s. 8d. visit. Ordinaria quolibet tertio anno 3s. 4d. Kex, latlull Dominii sui de Nafberth, 1535; The Prince of Wales. Kings Books, £25 10s. 10d. £200. Yearly tenths, £2 11s. 1d. - Bacons Liber Regis.

On 13 June, 1879, a faculty was obtained for the restoration of the Parish Church of Narberth.

The chapel of Mounton, which is situated on the confines of Narberth Parish, is in a parish of its own, but nothing is known as to its early history. In 1721 it was in ruins, and according to Lewis Topographical Dictionary, published in 1840, it was then consolidated with Narberth, to which rectory it vas considered to be a chapel of ease. The tithes of Mounton Parish, amounting to £21 0s. 4d. are owned by Mr. Wilfred Lewis of Henllan. The chapel was rebuilt by the Right Rev. Richard Lewis, late Bishop of Llandaff.

Browne     Richard     Churchwarden 1543            Narberth     PRO223/423.

Wellshe      Ieuan       Churchwarden 1543            Narberth     PRO 223/423.

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Nash    St Mary [Jottings originally made for Mrs Gibby at Nash who always provided a very welcome cup of tea after I had taken the Service there.]

The original form of the place-name Nash was Ash, which appears in early records as Esse.  

Archeologia Cambrensis 5786 Vol V 5th Series, August 4th 1871.

This Church seems to have been wholly rebuilt, except that some portions of the original walls are partially slated. It is a plain, oblong building, with square headed windows and a modern bell cot at the west end. In the Churchyard is a fine sepulchral effigy of a knight, neglected and overgrown with moss, with a helmet of 15c and his hand on his sword. There is also an old font with a square bowl.

The organ is situated on a gallery at the west end and access is gained via stairs from the porch. The seating is rather unusual in that it consists of box pews, in two of which half of the occupants would be sitting with their backs to the altar. There is a two decker pulpit.

The original Church dates back to at least 1291,and had some  fine carving and effigies, one of a lady, and one of a Knight in mail armour but by the time of Fentons visit in 1810 parts of the church had deteriorated badly and had been pulled down. The effigy of the knight was removed to Upton Chapel after spending years lying in the churchyard overgrown with moss.  

1291 Ecclesia de Esse [Nash] was assessed for tenths to the King, The sum payable being 10s.

1307 Sept 20   Edward II File 4(1) (Cal p21a).

(One of the Jurors John De Esse).

Lands etc., Joan de Valencia, Countess of Pembroke.

Rent of Costeyniston  8s.

Opeton  4s.

Esse   1d.  

1324 August 20 Pembroke.

C Edward II File 85.

Extent made before John de Hamptona, Kings escheater, at Pembroke 20 August 1324 Jurors: Walter Maeleufaut, Walter de Castro, John Keiez (Kneghey) John Melin, Walter Harald; Stephen Perot, Walter Eliot; Wioti de Laureny, John Cradok (John de Luny), William de Crippynes, Thomas Martin, and John Scorlags.

[as per C Edward II file 84 plus following]

Aymer had in the county of Pembroch £25 1/2 knights fees and one tenth knights fee, whereof :

* Esse half knights fee held by Walter Maleufaunt worth yearly 10m. (He was succeeded by his son William).

     Total Value  £175 16s 41/2d besides dower (preter dotem)  

1348 September 24   Pembroke.

Writ of certiorari de feodis etc., to John de Shol, escheater in Hereford and the adjacent March of Wales, 24 September.

Edward III Extent of all fees and advowsons of churches in the county of Pembroke, made at Pembroke on Thursday in the feast of St Michael de Monte Tumba, 22 Edward III.

Esse half fee held by William Maleufaunt, worth yearly 10m.  

1376 20 November.

I. P. M., Edward III,  248,  f. 105

Writ of certiorari de feodis, d. 20 November, 49 Edward III. Edward de Brigg. Extent. 49 Edward III.

half a knights fee in Esse,  which W. formerly held worth etc. 50s;  

1513. Nash manor owned by the Bowen family of Upton descended from Sir James ap Owen of Pentre Jevan[ Evan] in Nevern Parish.  


Henry king of England etc.,  to Edward etc., bishop of St Davids greeting. Whereas you and the rest of the prelates and clergy of the province of Canterbury assembled in the last convocation or holy synod of such prelates and clergy in the church of the divine Paul, London, begun and celebrated on 6 February in the year 1511-12 according to the course and computation of the English Church and continued day by day unto and on 17 December then next following granted unto us for the defence and protection of the  Anglican Church and this our famous realm of England as well as to allay and extirpate heresies and schisms in the church universal which  in these days flourish more than usually, under the manners, forms, conditions, and exceptions written below, not otherwise not in any other manner, four tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices and possessions whatsoever, also of all benefices and possessions of alien priories whatsoever, being in the hands of whatsoever ecclesiastics or secular men of the said province, the specific exceptions within written only excepted, to be levied, collected and paid in the manner, form and terms following, namely one and the first tenth on the feast of St Martin in the winter next to come which will be in the year 1513, the second truly on the feast of St Peter ad Vincula then next to come which will be in the year 1514, and the third on the feast of the Holy apostles Phillip and James which will be in the year 1515, the fourth and last tenth truly on the feast of the said Apostles which will be in the year 1516 saving from the grant, levy, and payment of the said tenth stc., as it more fully appears in the said writ of the king hanging on the file of the year 1513.  

The goods, church possessions and benefices, in the diocese of St Davids which have been diminished, impoverished, and other destroyed by wars, fires, ruins, inundations of rivers and other misfortunes and chances deservedly to be excused from payment of the same four tenths according to the force etc., of the grant of the same by the authority of the said convocation follow and are these as appears on the other part of the folio here following etc.

In the archdeaconry of St Davids are excepted the churches here underwritten:-

In the deanery of Pembroke the underwritten churches are excepted:


1518      Walter Wickes                                               Nash Rector.

1518 Apr 8      Philip Eynon                                       Nash Rector.

Acc/to the Episcopal register of St Davids  there was a presentation to the parish Church of Nash otherwise Esse by Margaret ap Oweyn, widow, relict of Thomas ap Oweyn, patroness by reason of the nonage of her son Rhys ap Oweyn, the heir, her ward by grant of the King ( Henry VII). On 8th April 1518  in the aforesaid place he admitted one Sir Philip Eynion Chaplain of his diocese to the parish Church of Nash otherwise Esse vacant by the death in the course of nature of Sir Walter Wicks last and immediate rector.  

1536 - 39 Nash Rectory taken by the Crown [Henry VIII]  from Priory of Pembroke

1542   Thomas Yonge            Nash Rector

1543   William Foland            Nasshe  (Nash) Churchwarden      Pro 223/423                            

1543             Resson            Nasshe  (Nash)  Churchwarden

1554 Oct 24 Phillipp Pyrry       Nash Rector

1570 Nash Church patron Rice ap Owen of Upton   who was Sheriff of Pembrokeshire in the reign of Elizabeth I

1576 David Philipps                Nash Rector

1594 Nash Church patron Harry Bowen of Upton

1600 approx tenant of Nash manor was Henry Bowen

1626 Aug 28    William Wolfe                             Nash Rector       

1637 Jul 3        Michael Barwicke                        Nash Rector

1669 Jul 5       Morgan Davies                             Nash Rector  

1670  Hearth Tax.

Browne           George                        hearth   h2               

Davids             William                       hearth   h3               

Gibbon            Elizabeth                    hearth   h2     

Philip              Thomas                        hearth   h2                

Powell           Henry                          hearth   h2                

Young         Phillip                         hearth   h1               

1695 Jun 24   Howell Jones       Nash Rector

1700 Charles Owen  son of Sir Hugh Owen and Anne   Married Dorothy Corbett  they had a son Wyrriot

1700£ Dorothy Corbett daughter of Erasmus Corbett married Charles Owen

1701 Feb 7    David Howells       Nash Rector

1708 Sep 24  Andrew Evans       Nash Rector

1715 John Roch was born at Nash Farm

1729, 40 53     Wyrriot Owen lived at Nash   married Anne Barlow.  He was          Pembroke   Mayor   1729, 40 53

1729 Anne Barlow daughter of John Barlow of Lawrenny   married Wyrriot Owen of Nash

1742 Existing records of Baptisms and Burials start

1744 Existing records of Marriages start

1764   George Holcombe                                         Nash Rector

1762 Erasmus Owen   son of Charles Owen of Nash, lived at Southwood Pems, he was Pembroke Mayor  and was also Captain of the Militia.

1764 Oct 11 Joseph Hughes                                     Nash Rector

1774 May 27 John Jordan                                         Nash  Rector                                

1790 Jan 25   John Rees                                            Nash  Rector

1796 Oct 5    Thomas Woods                                   Nash  Rector

1801 Sep 8    Evan Thomas                                      Nash  Rector

1810 Fenton.

On the way from Pembroke to Tenby I visited the Church of Nash, to which Upton was a chapel, where I have been informed there was an effigy of a Crusader. A great rarity here.

The Church of Nash, though certainly ancient as containing the remains of one of the earliest followers of the crusades, and founded, no doubt, by the first baronial possessor of Upton Castle, probably the Crusader himself, neither has, nor appears to have had, any steeple, or other ornament whatever, being the meanest religious structure I have seen in this Hundred. We found the knight of the cross, disgracefully lying without the north church wall under the dripping of the eves, amidst the rubbish of an aisle that, being grown ruinous was taken down a few years ago by the patron of the living, and then Rector. The parts of the figure were of good sculpture and the minute wire armour particularly well executed. It was of purplish stone and of large size; the face was entirely broken off.

On examining the old man who had been employed to repair the Church and stop up the doorway leading to the Chapel, I was told that the Palestine warrior originally lay on a bench at the North end of the dilapidated aisle.

To the discovery of his name and rank, there was nothing to help us; but the tradition was that he died abroad and that his body was landed at Cosheston Pill, a little below the Church and that he was an Admiral and a giant; the effigy giving some countenance to the latter part of the story, being represented much above the ordinary stature.  

1827 Sep 18 James Robertson Holcombe                                    Nash   Rector

1831 Dec 6       William Paynter Evans                                        Nash    Rector  

1834 - Topograpical Dictionary of  Wales - S Lewis.

NASH, a parish partly in the hundred of CASTLE-MARTIN, and partly in that of NARBERTH county of  PEMBROKE, SOUTH WALES, 3 miles (N. E.) from Pembroke, containing 133 inhabitants.

This parish, which is situated in the southern part of the county, and  near a small inlet from Milford Haven comprises but a moderate portion of land, which is enclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The surrounding scenery, though not distinguished by any striking peculiarity of feature, is generally pleasing; and the adjacent country affords some interesting objects, and some views which are not destitute of beauty. The great turnpike road leading from Narberth to Pembroke passes through the southern part of the parish. The living is a rectory, with Upton annexed, in the archdeaconry and diocese of St. Davids, rated in the king books at £6. 12. 8d., and in the patronage of the Rev. William Evans. The church is a very ancient structure remarkable for the rude simplicity of its architecture, and is said to have been erected by one of the earliest Norman proprietors of Upton castle. The average annual expenditure for the support of the poor is £20. 2s.  

1842 Acc/to a letter  PCRO HPR/15/17.

 This Church was repaired in the year 1842 by which means 59 additional sittings were obtained and in consequence of a Grant from the Incorporated Society for promoting the enlargement of buildings and the repair of Churches and chapels 63 sittings are hereby declared to be free and un-appropriated for ever. The provision of Church-room previous to the alteration being to the extent of 28 appropriated sittings.

A plan showing the number and situation of the free seats is fixed up in the Vestry Room

                                                W P Evans  Minister.

                                                Robert White  Churchwarden.

(Plans of the seating in the Church show that they were of the box type in the main as they are today - extra seating was provided on the balcony and up by the pulpit in-between it and the altar.)  

While this work was being carried out the register shows that services were held at Upton.  

1851 - Census of Religious Buildings   PEMBROKE (DISTRICT).  

13 Nash Parish, with Upton Hamlet.

Area of Nash: 577 acres.

Population. 69 males, 63 females: total 132.

Area of Upton: 435acres.

Population. 10 males, 13 females: total 26.  


Endowed: tithe £80, glebe £60.

Space: free 63; other 70.

Present: morning 70 + 8 scholars. Average: morning 80.

W. P. Evans. Rector.

Lewis: rectory with Upton annexed, rated at £6. 12. 8d net income, £130 with glebe-house: patron, Rev. William Evans: tithes commuted for £80, glebe of 21 acres valued at, £55 per annum.

1 service in English.

Incumbent legally not resident.

 ICBS: grant of £70 in 1841.  

1882 Jan5        David Edwards             Nash   Rector

1883 May 16   David Davies                Nash  Rector

1853 Jul 21      Hugh Percy Thomas     Nash  Rector  


The Parish Church (6 in. Ord. Surv. sheet, Pem. 40 N.W.). Ded: St. Mary.  

Diocese and archdeaconry of St. Davids; rural deanery of Castle Martin.

This is a modern church possessing nothing of archaeological interest. The 13-century recumbent effigy of a knight, which formerly lay in the churchyard, neglected and overgrown with moss  (Glynne,  Notes, Arch. Camb., 1888, v 125, ill.), has been removed to Upton Chapel (No. 1134, ). - Visited, 11th May 1922.

Church Hill.

A field a little over half a mile south-east of the parish church. It formerly belonged to the rectory of Yerbeston, hence its name (Tithe Schedule, No. 102).  

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter  1994.

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features.  

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

Rectory of Nash or Esse, as it was called, was appendant to the manor of the same name, which was owned in 1518 by the Bowen family of Upton, Pems., descended from Sir James ap Owen of Pentre Ievan, in Nevern parish. The patron in 1570 was Rice ap Owen of Upton. - Inq. P. of Rice ap Owen, 13 Eliz. In 1594 the patron was Harry Bowen.  

Under the name, Ecclesia de Esse, this church was assessed in 1291 at £5 for tenths to the King, the sun payable being 10s - Taxatio.

Nashe et Ucton Rectoria. -Ecclesia tbidem ex collacione domirli de Ucton unde Philippus Eynon clericus est rector habens ibidem mansionem et valent fructus hujusmodi per annum vij. Unde sol in ol-dinaria visitacione quolibet tercio anno ijd ob. Et ill visitacione arch diaconi pro sinodalibus et procuracioni-bus quolibet anno iijs isd. Et pro pensione prioris Pembr per annum iijs iiijd Et remanet clare £6 12s. 8d. Inde decima 13s. 3d. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Nash R. with Upton Ch. Ordinario quolibet tertio anno 2d. Archidiac quolibet anno 3s. 9d. Pens. Pri. Pembr., 3s. 4d. John Bowen, Esq., 1708; Morris Bowen, Esq., 1738; Thomas Skyrme and others, 1764, 1774. Clear yearly value, £30. Kings Books, £6  12s. 8d. - Bacons Liber Regis.

The Chapelry of Upton was subordinate to Nash, and from the earliest recorded institution the incumbent of Nash has invariably held Upton.  

Acc/to the Land Tax Records 1791.  

Nash Bank                                                      Lewis               Rev Owen (owner)  

Nash Bank                                                      Thomas           George (tenant)    

Nash Blackberry                                             Roch                Nicholas  (owner)  

Nash Bush Park                                           Holcombe        Rev. William (owner)

Nash Cart House Croft                                   Bowen              Rev. (owner)       

Nash Cart House Croft                                   Thomas            George (tenant)   

Nash Church Hills                                           Holcombe         Rev. William (tenant)

Nash Church Hills                                           King                  Rev. (owner)       

Nash Colliers Croft                                         Gwyther           Thos (tenant)      

Nash Colliers Croft                                         Hicks                 Rev. Philomon (owner)

Nash Common Lays                                       Leach                Abraham (owner)   

Nash Common Lays                                       Roch                 John (tenant)     

Nash Crafty Corner                                        Leach               Abraham (owner)    

Nash Crafty Corner                                        Roch                 John (tenant)     

Nash East Ashwell                                          Holcombe         Rev. William (owner)

Nash East Croft                                              Holcombe         Rev. William (tenant)

Nash East Croft                                              Lewis                Rev. (owner)        

Nash Glebe & Tythe                                       Rees                  Rev. John (owner)  

Nash Green Hill                                              Holcombe         Rev. William (owner)

Nash Green Hill                                              Jarmain            Thomas (tenant)   

Nash Little Croft                                            Hicks                 Rev. James (owner) 

Nash Little Croft                                            Thomas             George (tenant)   

Nash Lodge                                                   Gwyther            Henry (tenant)    

Nash Lodge                                                    Hicks                 Hannah (owner)      

Nash Lower Nash                                           Leach               Abraham (owner)   

Nash Lower Nash                                           Roch                 John (tenant)     

Nash Meadows                                               Davies               Mary (tenant)     

Nash Meadows                                               Mears               Hugh (owner)      

Nash Middle Farm                                          Holcombe         Rev. William (owner)

Nash Middle Farm                                          Lloyd                John (tenant)      

Nash North Park                                              John                Ansolm (tenant)   

Nash North Park                                             Roch                 Nicholas (owner)   

Nash Old Park                                                George              Thomas (tenant)   

Nash Old Park                                                Walters             Rev. (owner)       

Nash Petty Lands                                            Holcombe         Rev. William (owner)

Nash Rock                                                      Roberts             Rev. Nicholas (owner)

Nash Rock                                                      Williams           William (tenant)  

Nash South Pit                                                Holcombe         Rev William (owner)

Nash South Pit                                                Lewis                Henry (tenant)    

Nash Stoops Lake                                    Hicks                Hannah (owner)    

Nash Stoops Lake                                    John                 David (tenant)    

Nash Strawberry Hill                                      Hancock           Rev. Thomas (owner) 

Nash Tanzoy                                                   Holcombe         Rev. William (owner)

Nash Two Hills                                               Holcombe          Rev. William (owner)

Nash Two Mountains                                   Holcombe          Rev. William (owner)

Nash Upper Nash                                            Holcombe          Rev. William (owner)

Nash West Ashwell                                        Hancock            Rev. Thomas (owner)

Nash West Croft                                             Davies                Rev. (owner)        

Nash West Croft                                             Holcombe          Rev. William (tenant)

Nash West Hill                                                Barger               Philip (tenant)   

Nash West Hill                                                Holcombe          Rev. William (owner)

Nash Winters Hall                                           Evans                 Rev. William (owner)

Nash Winters Hall                                           Gwyther            Thomas (tenant)    

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Nevern                   (083401)    [Jottings]  (I spent many happy hours here in the caravan).  

Brynach, an early Christian married the local chiefs daughter and founded a holy place by the stream. There he buried his brother in law Maelgwyn. The memorial stone is written in Latin and Ogham, the family therefore must have had Irish connections. Also a burial memorial to a retired Roman Soldier lies near, plus a fragment of another. Four more early Christian monuments lie either in the church or churchyard.

The Church has a squat Norman Tower 12c but was restored in 1864 and 1952. Shiela na gig fertility figurine in the wall.

The bleeding yews in churchyard will bleed till Wales once again has a Welsh prince of Wales.

One of the prettiest hamlets in Pembrokeshire. There is an interesting motte and bailey castle on the river spur above the hamlet but the focus of interest lies in the beautiful grouping of church, vicarage, old school, bridge inn (the Trewern Arms) and cottages around the river; and fields, paddocks and wooded slopes are essential parts of the settlement. The church, with its squat Norman tower, is full of interest. In the churchyard the massive St. Brynachs Cross (dating from the 10th century AD) is much photographed, while visitors also flock to see the famous bleeding yew trees which shade the path to the church door. Outside the churchyard gate there is a mounting-block for horsemen, and halfway up the hill to the west there is an ancient pilgrims cross engraved in the solid rock on pilgrims route to St Davids and a set of steps cut into the rock each have a small cross cut in them.  

Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales   by Mike Salter  1994.

The long nave and chancel may be of the 15c as no features are earlier than that. There are transeptal chapels on each side, that on the south being rib-vaulted in two bays. The pier and two arches are Victorian insertions below a wider, flatter original single arch. Two chapel windows have an Ogham stone and another tomb-stone as sills. The west tower is 16c. Some restoration was carried out in 1863. South of the church is a very fine Celtic Cross of c1000.  

Castell Nanhyfer   Nevern Castle        (083402)

Early iron Age fort.

Ditch and bank defences c350BC used by the Irish rulers of the area. Clethyr, father in law of St Brynach was one.

1080 in Welsh hands.

1100 original seat of the Marcher Lordship of Kemes. Motte and bailey castle built by Robert Fitzmartin  (Martin de Tours, Martin Turribus) who married Matilda daughter of a local  chieftain. Part of her property was 230 acres of fine hunting  land at Moylegrove. Grandson William who married daughter of Lord Rhys was driven from Nevern by Rhys in 1215 and moved to Newport were they built a new castle; reputedly with money paid by the King of England for murdering a troublesome Welsh local chieftain.  

Once the administrative and religious centre of Cemais.

Trewern -  a Jacobean mansion.

Cwmgloyn   has a Jacobean staircase.

Llwyngwair Manor   dates from medieval times.  

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

The vicarage of Nevern originally belonged to the Lord of Kemes. In 1326 the advowson, then of the annual value of 24 marks, formed part of the knights fees assigned to James de Audele, kinsman and coheir of William, son of William Martin, late Lord of Kemes deceased. - Pat. Rolls.

On 28 Aug., 1377, Nicholas de Audele [son of the above mentioned James de Audele] obtained licence from the King to alienate in mortmain the advowson of the church of Nevern in Wales to Adam Houghton, Bishop of St Davids, who, at the same time, was granted license to appropriate the Church. - Pat. Rolls.  1380, Bishop Adam Houghton united Nevern and other churches, and appropriated them to the chantry of St. Mary at St Davids, subject to the annual payment of £10 towards the fabric of the Cathedral. It appears that the Bishop did not obtain the necessary licence for this grant to the chantry, as on 28 Feb., 1389, the master and chaplain of the chantry, at the intercession of William, Archbishop of Canterbury, and on payment of 40 marks, obtained pardon for this breach of the law. - Pat. Rolls.

On the dissolution of the chantry of St. Mary, the church of Nevern came into the hands of the Crown from whom on 2 Dec., 1596, a lease of the rectory was obtained by Thomas Birt, Robert Birt, and John Birt, junior, for their lives at the annual rent of £33 13s. 4d. and a fine of £13 6s. 8d. - State Papers.

In 1291 this Church with its Chapel was assessed at £16 for tenths to the King. - Taxatio.

Neverne. - Vicaria ibidem ex callacione collegii Beate Marie prope Meneven unde Ovnus Davy clericus est vicarius valet porcio ejusdem vicarii £8. Inde decima 16s. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading “Livings Discharged”:- Nearne alias Newerne alias Nyfer alias Nevern V. (St Brynach). St. Davids College olim Propr.; The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value, £30. £50. King’s Books, £8. – Bacon’s Liber Regis.

There are no fewer that eight pilgrimage chapels in Nevern parish mentioned in George Owens list, most of which were then in ruins. Their names were Capell St. Thomas, Capell St. Fredde, Capell Gwenfrdn, Capell Wenddith, Capell Reall, Capell Sadric, Capell Kilgwin, and Capell St. George.

Capell Kilgwin, now called Cilgwyn, is dedicated to St. Mary, and is now annexed to the vicarage of Nevern to which living it appears to have been united as far back as 1291, as in the Vetus Valor [Taxation of Pope Nicholas] the valuation of  Navam cum Capella  is stated to be £16.  

Acc/to Church Guide book.

The Church is cruciform in plan, that is to say it is in the form of a cross laid flat on the ground to remind us of the crucifixion of our Lord. The transepts (or crossings) form the arms of the cross at the east end of the Nave (literally The Ship, so called from its long shape). Looking eastward the visitor will notice a feature common to many ancient churches: the chancel (from the Latin cancelli, meaning the lattices of the former rood screens) is out of alignment with the nave, having a distinct offset to the south. Some believe that this was done to symbolise the inclination of our Lords head on the cross, though an inclination to the north would accord better with traditional representations. A more probable explanation is that when the chancel was rebuilt, or enlarged, the work was done while the old chancel was still standing and it would be difficult to take accurate measurements. The offset is only one degree though it appears to be more. It has some aesthetic value as varying the perspective.  


The Tower is Norman but the remainder is late perpendicular, 1425-1525. The Church was restored in 1864. The tower was repaired and the church reconditioned and redecorated in 1952.  


There are two transeptal chapels, both of considerable interest. That on the south is the Trewern-Henllys Chapel, so named after the residencies of the families buried in the vault beneath. On the eastern wall there is a brass tablet to George Owen of Henllys, Lord Marcher of the Barony of Cemais, Elizabethan historian and geologist. The stone vaulting of the roof is the only one of its kind in Pembrokeshire.  

In the window sills are embedded two stone slabs, found by the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 1906 in the walls of the passage leading to the Priests chamber over the chapel.  

The Maglocunus Stone.

This irregularly-shaped inscribed stone is 62 1/2 inches long but a portion of the left end has been broken off.  

The inscriptions are considered to be as follows:  


Ogham. MAGLICUNAS MAQI CLUTAR [I] (read right to left).  


The date may be the 5th century, A.D.  

The Ogham inscription is in the Irish branch of the Celtic language, called Goidelic, then predominant in parts of Wales. Maqi is the genitive singular of the Gaelic Mac, the Welsh equivalent being (M)ab or ap. The letters in the oldest Ogham inscriptions are made, as here, by strokes or notches on either side of, or across, the edge of a stone. The bilingual monuments helped to provide the key to the Ogham alphabet.  

The Cross stone.

This slab is 62 inches long by 12 inches wide. It bears a cross in slight relief which has some unusual features.  

At the base there are two cords, or ribbons, which run parallel to each other for about one foot and then diverge for a similar distance. Near the base each cord has a short branch shooting upward on its right side. The meaning of this digression is not known. At two feet the cords divide. This treatment, of two cords growing out of one, is not usual in early work and would alone suggest an advanced date. From the four cords a knot is formed in a manner unusual and altogether different from the character of the ornament commonly met with on Celtic crosses.

Above the knot the four cords reunite into two, intersect, and then continue upwards to frame the large triangular head, within which there is a triquetrous, or three stemmed, ornament.  

The cross-arms end in triangular patterns which are similar to, but smaller than, the head. The arms are firmed by a separate cord which interlaces with the cords of the main stem.  

The Priests Chamber.

A turret staircase leads from the chapel to a low room, 27 feet by 12 feet, lighted by a circular quatrefoil window in the east wall. These chambers are a fairly common feature of old churches and seem to have been used for various purposes. Sometimes there was an altar but more often the room was used for living purposes either by a priest or by a guardian of the Church. Small meetings were also held there.  

The Glasdir Chapel.

The chapel on the north is called the Glasdir Chapel the only remaining evidence that it was used as such are the two recesses in the wall. These were obviously piscinas, or stone basins, for disposing of the water used in cleaning the vessels at Holy Communion. In more recent times this chapel was used as a vestry.  


On either side are two sepulchral recesses, lighted by narrow pointed windows, a characteristic feature of Pembrokeshire churches. That on the north contains the organ In the southern recess there is an east window with a pleasing example of modern glass. By the altar there is an arch-pointed piscine.  

A Missing Stone.

Before the restoration of 1864 there was a stone slab, about 10 feet by 3 feet, embedded in the pavement on the north of the chancel. On it was inscribed a Greek cross, an early relic of British Christianity. This stone has disappeared but a full description of it exists and a sketch, made by a parishioner in 1861, has been preserved. A photograph of this sketch hangs on the Vestry screen.  


A pointed arch opens from the nave to the Norman tower, a massive structure extending the full width of the Church. In the west wall there is a four light window. A flight of sixty turret steps leads to the battlemented roof. In the upper storey there are six melodious bells, all dating from 1763. The ringing chamber is situated on the first floor.  

The Church Plate.

The Church Plate is valuable, patens and a chalice having been presented by parishioners in 1696, 1733 and 1784.  

Tile list of vicars dates from 1514 and the registers from 1653.  


The Site.  

Celtic Chieftains and Priests were of similar status and it was customary for the chieftain to grant to the Priest a piece of ground as a sacred enclosure, or Llan, a rill of water forming a convenient boundary between them: the water was used also for both sacred and secular purposes. This seems to have been the arrangement at Nevern, with the Chieftains stronghold on the hill to the west, a boundary provided by the brook Caman, and the Llan comprising the ground within the wall of the old graveyard.  

It is recorded in the Life of St Brynach, in the British Museum , that the Chieftain concerned was Clechre or Clether, who was apparently a kinsman of St. Brynach’s wife. Subsequently a further grant of land was made by Maelgwn Gwynedd, who died of the Yellow Plague in 547. He was the son of Cadwason Lawhir and is therefore, not the Maelgwn of the bilingual 5th century stone in the church. It is an interesting speculation that the Clutor of the stone may be Clether the Chieftain, though there are difficulties in accepting this view.  

The Vitallanus Stone.Immediately to the east of the porch there is another bilingual stone which may date from the 5th century and be one of the oldest examples of this type of monument. A sketch in the British Museum made about 1698 by Edward Lhuyd, Keeper of the Ashrnolean Museum, Oxford, shows that there has been no change in either the size of the stone of the legibility of the faint lettering since that date. The inscriptions are:



In Latin and Ogham alike the meaning is (THE MONUMENT OF VITALIANUS). EMERETO is unexplained, but is conceivably a territorial adjective. Alternatively it may be a corrupt and ungrammatical derivative of Emeritus, discharged with honour.  

Corbel and Old Windows.

In the wall of the Church above the Vitalianus stone there is a slightly defaced corbel with male mask. On the west and south walls of the Trewern Chapel can be seen traces of reconstruction and of old windows. There is a Cross over the central southern buttress.  

The Great Cross.

This famous Celtic Cross has often been described and is one of the most perfect specimens of its kind, being equalled only by two other crosses in Wales, namely by that at Carew, Pembrokeshire, and by the Macn Achwynfan in Flintshire.  

The total height is 13 feet, the cross being 24 l/2 inches in diameter.The date is unknown but the workmanship points to either the 10th or 11th centuries.  

On each of the four sides are compartments which contain a differently arranged ribbon, the endless interlacing symbol of eternity. Two compartments on the east each contain a primitive form of cross, the angulated arms indicating rotation against the sun.  

A curious error of the sculptor in this pattern will be noticed, the upper cross having the angulated end of its left upper arm reversed. The ingenious manner in which the adjoining ornament has been modified will be observed.

On the east and west sides are abbreviated inscriptions in the peculiar alphabet found in the earliest British writings, dns certainly stands for dominus, Lord, and Professor R. A. S. Macalister suggests that the other inscription might be extended to Halleluiah, alleluias.  

On the patron day, 7th April, the cuckoo is said to have perched on this stone, Mass being delayed till the call was heard. On one occasion the bird was late and, being scarce able once to sound the note, presently fell dead. The chronicler, George Owen, adds: this vulgar tale, although it concerns in some sort church matters, you may either believe or not, without peril of damnation. The Cross was scheduled as an ancient monument in 1950.  


Proceeding eastwards the curious may care to read the following epitaph on a wall tombstone in the second enclosed graveyard:  

Anna Letitia and George, infant children of the Rev. D. Griffiths, Vicar 1783 - 1834.

following epitaph on a wall tombstone in the second enclosed graveyard:  

            They tasted of lifes’ bitter cup,

            Refused to drink the potion up,

            But turned their little heads aside

            Disgusted with the taste, and died.  

Just beyond is the memorial to the Rev. John Jones, M.A., whose bardic title was Tegid; Vicar 1842 - 1852; Poet, scholar and Patriot. He assisted Lady Charlotte Guest to render a part of The Mabinogion into English. From his grave there is a restful view of Carn Ingli, the mountain to the south.  

Imperfect Incised Stone.

On the north wall of the church there is a faintly lettered fragment of stone in the west corner of the sill of the second chancel window. In 1860 this was noted as being in the south wall when there were three more letters. Apparently the stone was recut to fit into its present position. It is thought to be a remnant of a vertical Latin inscription and to date from about the last years of the Roman occupation.  

Consecration Cross.

Outside the east wall of the Glasdir Chapel is an incised cross, obviously of great antiquity: there is little doubt that it is a Consecration Cross. The consecration of Churches is an elaborate ceremonial dating back to the Primitive Church, an important part of which is the placing of Crosses on the walls, both inside and outside. Robanus Maurus (A.D. 788 - 856) observes that the crosses on the walls of the Church, with their lighted tapers, recall the walls of the heavenly Jerusalem, on whose foundations were inscribed the names of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb who were sent to enlighten the world.  

The Outside Of The Tower.

On the north wall can be seen the protuberance of the turret staircase. From the west end there is a good view of the stepped buttresses which reach almost to the battlement parapet.  

The Yew Tree Avenue.

Leaving the churchyard by the avenue of ancient yews, memories come of the use which the Welsh made of these sinewy trees in the days of archery, and of how the English learnt from them the use of the long bow, used with such effect at Crecy and Agincourt.  

The Entrance Gate.

Between the pillars there was a wrought-iron grid over which animals would not pass, so allowing the gate to remain open. This has now been removed but another exists at the eastern entrance. It seems that the use of animal grids was known here well over a century ago, and possibly much earlier.  

The Mounting Blocks.

On the right is a mounting block, one of two left in Pembrokeshire. This is a relic of the times when parishioners rode to church and of the sequel to a Welsh wedding when the bridegroom and bride rode assay on one horse pursued by mounted guests. It is related that a husband reproved his wife for tearing her habit when dismounting with the words, Madam, rend your heart and not your garments.  

The New Churchyard.

This is over the road. The iron gate was presented by a parishioner and bears the date l810. It is made of wrought iron and does not rust.  

The Pilgrims Cross.

Up the hill to the west a stile at the hair-pin bend leads to a path which passes below the Pilgrims Cross, some 30 yards on. The cross is cut in relief in the living rock and below it is a kneeling recess with a small incised cross. It was probably a wayside shrine on the pilgrim’s way from Holywell to St. Davids and is now almost unique. In 1949 it was scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Protection Act.

Nevern Castle Site.

Further up the hill on the right can be seen traces of the stronghold which once existed here.  


The late Professor Sir John Rhys stated of Nevern that such a group of antiquities at one small centre is very remarkable and suggested that more may yet be found.  

Pentre Evan.

In this parish there is a megalithic tomb which is scheduled as a national monument as it is probably the finest example of its class in Great Britain. It is also interesting from its proximity to the Preseli Mountains, whence were taken the famous bluestones to form two of the inner circles at Stonehenge. How, or why, these stones were moved some 206 miles are matters of conjecture.  

[See paper read to the Society of Antiquities of London on l9th of April, 1923, by Mr H. H. Thomas, D.Sc., Petrologist to the Geological Surrey, and Early Britain, by Jacquetta Hawkes, published 1945 (Collins). The evidence can be studied in the museum at Salisbury.]  

400 - 500 A.D.

The period of the last stages of Roman influence and the probable date of the bilingual stones.

Nevern Church was founded in the middle of this period by St. Brynach who is reputed to have died on 7th April, about 570. He was a contemporary and friend of St. David, who died on 1st March, 603.

Of Irish birth, he came to Pembrokeshire with a Breconshire chieftain whose daughter, Cymorth, he had married. Here he founded a number of churches, of which Nevern, then called Nanhyfer, was the principal.

According to legend this Celtic Saint lived the life of a hermit on Carn Ingli where Angels ministered to his spiritual wants. Hence the name is thought to be derived from Mons Angelorum or Carn Engylion, the Mount of Angels (cr Engleberg, Switzerland) Ireland can be seen from the summit on a clear day so it is easy to understand the close communion which existed between the two countries.

600 - 1000 A.D.

Through the mists of these times there emerge the flames of local chieftains such as Meurig (Meyrick) of the Arthurian tales, and Cuhelyn.

They seem to have had their headquarters at Nevern, in the stronghold on the top of the hill to the west. The Church appears to have been well endowed by them as the parish is the largest in the county.  

In the ninth century the Vikings made extensive raids on these coasts, pillaging St. David’s Cathedral.

1000 A.D.

The Great Celtic Cross was probably erected about this time. The workmanship is a rough guide to the date.  

1100 - 1200A.D.

Parts of the tales of Welsh folklore, known as the Mabinogion have this district as their background. They were first written down about 1200 A.D.  

1081 - 1100 A.D. - The Normans.

William the Conqueror visited St. Davids in 1081, ostensibly as a pilgrim, and worshipped at the shrine. It seems likely that he came by way of Dynevor Castle, Carmarthenshire, the seat of the Lord Rhys, ruler of south-west Wales, who is recorded in Doomsday Book, 1086, as paying tribute for his lands. Some years later Martin de Tours led an expedition from the north coasts of Devonshire and landed at Fishguard. They were well informed about the country as their ancestors had visited these shores and Celtic Saints had often gone to Normandy.  

Defeating the local tribesmen, they made Nevern their headquarters, finding the existing Celtic stronghold ready to hand and suitable for their purpose. This they improved and strengthened, though it is uncertain whether they built a castle, such remains as still exist being only the leavings of the Stone-quarrying activities of subsequent generations.  

Nevern was their headquarters for about 100 years! There being a chief local magistrate, called a Portreeve, with a court for hearing cases, and eighteen Burgesses who held land from the Lord Marcher on a special tenure. The size of the Church shows its importance.  

1200 A.D.

The Normans moved their headquarters to Newport, some two miles away, after which Nevern declined in importance and records become scarce.  

1291 A.D.

In this year there was a valuation by Pope Nicholas IV for a Crusade.  

Nevern, with its Chapel of Cilgwyn, was assessed at £16, which was double that of any other church in the Deanery of Cemais.  

This appears to be the first mention of Cilgwyn as belonging to Nevern. The present Church was built in 1884, on the site of an earlier building. A remnant of this may be an early Christian inscribed stone, probably a gravestone of the 7th/9th centuries, in the wall on the N.E. corner of the Church.  

1377 A.D.

The right of presentation of the living, the advowson, was either granted or sold by Sir Nicholas de Audley, Lord of Cemais, to Adam Holton, Bishop of St. Davids, who appropriated it to his College of St. Mary at St. Davids.  

1425 - 1525 A.D.

As already stated, the general architecture of the Church, except the tower, is late perpendicular, so presumably the nave and chancel were reconstructed at this time.  

1514 A D.

The first vicar of whom there is record, John Batty, appears in this year. He was succeeded in August by Thomas ap David ap Jenkyn, presented by the College of St. Mary at St. Davids.  

1534 A.D. As vicar he signed the abjuration of Papal authority.

1596 A.D.

The Crown sold a lease of the rectory to Thomas, Robert and Henry Birt for their lives at the annual rental of £33 13s 4d and a fine of £13 6s 8d.  

1600 A.D.

George Owen of Henllys, Lord Marcher, wrote on the history and geology of Pembrokeshire about this time. He recorded eight pilgrims chapels in the parish, then mostly in ruins. All traces of these have now been lost, with one possible exception in Roft-y-Capel at Capel Cynon, near Cilgwyn.

1763 A.D.

The Church Bells were presented by the vicar and others. The former bells, probably three in number, were taken by the bell founder in part exchange.  

1772/88 A.D. John Wesley records in his diary that he stayed with Mr Bowen at Llwyngwair in this parish on seven occasions.  

William Williams of Pantycelyn is said to have written at the Welsh hymn Llwyngwair at this time:  

Dros y bryniau tywyll, niwlog.

Tawel, fenaid, edrych draw     

O'er those gloomy hills of darkness,

Look my soul . . .

Carn Ingli and the Preselis, in certain moods, may well have inspired the author.  

l864. A.D. The Church was restored.

1879 A.D.

The Chapel of Bayvil, formerly with Moylegrove, was transferred to Nevern.

1920 A.D.

The brass tablet in the Glasdir Chapel and the Organ were presented by parishioners and friends as a War Museum to the fallen and survivors. The memorials were dedicated and unveiled by the Lord Bishop of St. Davids on 11th November, 1920.  


The Tower and Church were repaired and restored at a cost of over £2,000. The Lord Bishop of St. Davids conducted a thanksgiving service on 26th November, 1952.  

1956 (August 29th) Visit of the Cambrian Archaeological Association.

1956 (November 7th).

Dedication of Electric Lighting, Heating and Church-wardens Wands.  

1967 (May).

The Ribs supporting the stone vaulting of the roof of Trewern Chapel were made safe and secure by stitching with bronze dowels.

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Newcastle Emlyn     [Jottings]

Newcastle Emlyn Castle.

The New Castle in Emlyn was so called to distinguish it from Cilgerran Castle, a few miles away, not the earlier motte and bailey castle just across the river. The rocky promontory, surrounded on three sides by the River Teifi, was fortified about 1240 by Maredudd ap Rhys Grug.

In 1287, another Welshman, Rhys ap Maredudd, escaping from the siege of Dryslwyn Castle, again evaded the English forces here and turned the tables by capturing the leader of the English garrison. An enormous effort was put into a second siege, and eventually the castle was taken. Five years later the royal garrison deserted but local officials held the castle until Rhys was finally defeated and killed.

Newcastle was rebuilt soon afterward, and a new town was founded outside its walls. Only parts of the castle gatehouse still remain standing, though its plan shows that the castle must have resembled those in better condition at Carreg Cennen and Laugharne. In the inner ward, tapering to the point of the ridge, some foundations of the hall and chapel can be traced. We know that in 1340 the hall had a shingled roof and wooden gutters; 200 years later the roofs were slate, and the gutters lined with lead.

The town was half destroyed by Owain Glyndwr in 1403, and the castle was held by the Crown in 1531 (see Carew Castle). During the Civil Wars the local Royalists retreated to the castle and inflicted a severe defeat on their opponents. But after the general surrender in these parts, the castle was blown up to make it untenable should fighting have broken out again.

In care of the local authority.

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Newgale         (850220)    Jottings

Nowadays a favourite holiday resort, with caravanners, campers and day trippers flocking in to enjoy the two miles of firm, golden sand. The massive storm-beach, made of pebbles from far and wide, is more interesting than the beach, and at times of severe winter weather remnants of the ancient submerged forest may be stripped clear of their covering of sand. This high pebble storm bank covers remains of the old village that was washed away during a storm in 1895.

Previously was a coal mining centre with 26 collieries in the 19c. In the cliffs around  can be seen the remains of medieval coal shafts.  

The valley running inland has marked the position of the Landsker line for many centuries.  

Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales -  by Mike Salter  1994.

Just a faint hollow now marks the site of this small chapel. In the early 19c Richard Fenton  described it as long and narrow and built of beach pebbles and mortar.

This ruined chapel was built on the place were St Caradoc’s body was rested on its journey to St David’s 1124.

The Cantrer Gwaelod drowned Forest lies under the beach  drowned 5500BC.

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New Moat       (Jottings)

New Moat lies eight miles north-east of Haverfordwest and is now little more than a village with a scattering of houses around St Nicholas church and traces of an old motte. During the 14th century, however, this was a manor of the Bishops of St David’s, who were responsible for erecting the stronghold and fostering the development of a not insignificant borough.

The remains of the motte, now no more than 10.5 metres in height can be seen on the east side of the main road facing Beech Court. There are no signs of any masonry, and it is unlikely that the castle was ever built in stone. The bailey can be detected to the west and north and was formerly mistaken for the remains of a Roman camp, being so marked on the 1907 edition of the Ordnance Survey map.

The name of New Moat, however, does imply the existence of an earlier structure which has been variously identified as nearby Henrys Moat or the camp of Rhyd y Brwyn. Equally this may be an allusion to The Mote which the 1907 map records south-west of the church beyond Awel y Coed Farm This is still partly visible and traces of the outer bailey in the form of a shallow ditch and low outer bank cutting diagonally across the field can be seen running in a north-easterly direction towards the church. These defences appear to have been earlier and distinct from those associated with the Episcopal borough of the 14th century, but, unfortunately, neither fortification has any recorded history. 

It seems likely that the old motte gave protection to a small burgess community which was later expanded by the bishops of St David’s.

Adam de Rupes foundation charter to Pill Priory c.1200 indicates that the church was already standing, while he also granted inter aria in the township of New Moat a burgage by the East Gate and one burgage on the north side. The reference to the East Gate is particularly interesting since it suggests that this early vill was defended, perhaps lying within the bailey walls as at Dryslwyn.

During the late 13th and early 14th centuries, associated with the buildings of the Bishops motte, new tenants were encouraged to take up burgages and the borough came into being. In 1291 a twice yearly fair was granted at Michaelmas and on the feast of St Nicholas and by 1326 the burgesses total had risen to 42 holding 89 p1ots. They were overwhelmingly English, and they held their lands by deed which suggests that the settlement was still comparatively recent.

There is little in the appearance of modern New Moat to indicate the site of this borough, but it is unlikely to have corresponded with the village before 1200 and the old motte south of the church. Indeed, the construction of a new stronghold only 500m further north suggests a new location, and the indications are to the area of what is now pasture immediately across the road. There are several earth works in this area together with what appear to be house platforms, while the field boundaries run parallel to the road, but set back, which suggests the perimeter of the settlement.

Nothing is known of the later history of New Moat or of the circumstances which led to its decline and virtual disappearance.  

Later the Scourfield Family became prominent. They were a local family who allegedly got their riches through the result of a whippet race and had one on their coat of arms. In vault under the church lead coffins were found and at foot of one a skeleton of a whippet.

Acc/to  The Monasticm Order in South Wales   1066 -1348  F G Cowley.

Pill Priory founded by Adam de Roche around c1200 and Caldy founded by Geva mother of Robert fitz Martin founded between 1113 and 1115  were attached to St Dogmaels

belonging to Pill

New Moat                   £4   13s  4d

The Church St Nicholas was already standing in c1200 according to Adam de Rupes foundation charter to Pill Priory he also granted, inter alia  in the township of New Moat a Burgage by the East Gate and one on the north side  indicating that the early vill was defended and appears to have had walls - bailey walls.

But by the 14c  the manor belonged to the Bishops of St Davids.

Extent of the Lands of the Bishopric of St Davids  1327 -- Pro E 152    No 16.

NOVA MOTA (New Moat, N.Pembs.)

Item, there is at the manor of Nova Mota a certain messuage worth none per annum because it is ruinous. One carucate of land worth 20s. per annum. There is a certain  water mill farmed of old at 14s. paid at the Feasts of the Nativity of Our Lord and St. John Baptist, in equal portions. A certain meadow valued 5s annum. There are no woods nor several pastures. Rents of assize of freemen £4. 2s 0d. per annum, paid at the Feasts of the Nativity of Our Lord and St. John Baptist.

Pleas and perquisites of court, worth 2s per annum.

Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales   by Mike Salter  1994.

St Nicholas.

The tower is old but the nave, north aisle, chancel, and north chapel were rebuilt in the 19c. There is an altar tomb of William Scourfield   d 1621.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

The church of St. Nicholas de Nova Mota [New Moat] was granted by Adam de Rupe [Roch], with the consent of his wife Blandina and his heir, to the priory of Pill or Pulla, and on the dissolution of that house came into the hands of the Crown. The patronage was afterwards acquired by the Scourfield family of New Moat. In 1622 it was owned by William Scourfield - P. M. Of William Scourfield, 20 Jac. I.

Described as Ecclesia de Nova Mota, this church was in 1291 assessed for tenths to the King, the amount payable being 8s 4d. – Taxatio.

Nova Mota.—Prior de Pulla rector ibidem tenet dictam ecclesiam sibi et successoribus suis appropriatam et habet ibidem unam mansionem cum certis terris eidem annexatis que valent per annum yjd Viijd. Et quandam mansionem vicarie ibidem cum certis terris eidem pertinentibus. Et valet fructus hujusmodi ecclesie clare communibus annis predicto priori et vicario ibidem curam gerente i iiijd. Inde sol annuatim in visitacione archidiaconi pro sinodalibus et procuracionibus vB ixd. Et remanet clare 44s. 7d. Inde decima 4s. 5d. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading "Livings remaining in Charge":- New Mote R. (St. Nicholas). Syn. and Prox. Archidiac., 5s. 8d. Prior de Pulla Rector appropriat. sibi et success. suis. William Scourfield, Esq. Kings Books, £2 4s.7d. Yearly tenths, 4s. 5d. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

On 7 July, 1884, a faculty was granted for the restoration of the parish church.

There are very few institutions to this church to be found, and in several instances it is impossible to be certain as to whether certain of the persons mentioned were rectors or vicars. It seems clear that the priors of Pulla were rectors, and presumably the King, at the dissolution of the priory of Pulla, succeeded the prior as rector. Whether the King retained the rectorship or merely the right of presentation to the rectory is difficult to decide; the fact, however, that the King (according to the Liber Institute.) presented in 1622 Philip Bowen to the vicarage of New Moat, strongly suggests that the rector ship was retained by the King, especially when it is remembered that, except in the case of prebendaries a rector in Pembrokeshire almost invariably presented to the vicarage. The date when the vicarage of New Moat was merged in the rectory is unknown, but it evidently must have occurred subsequently to 1633, and presumably before 1795.

Acc/to Major Francis Jones  - Historic Houses of Pembrokeshire.

Ffynnon Gain  (New Moat).

Now a farmstead to the south of New Moat village, on a steep slope to the north of Bletherston village. In 1326 it was described as a Knights fee divisible according to Welsh tenure; it was held by Philip Brown who owned Fonnon Keyng and Castel Kymer being two carucates held of the fee of New Moat. On Rees 14th century map it is marked as a Welsh knights fee.

It later passed to the Philipps family, a branch of Penty park. In 1638 John Philipps of Ffynnongain served as High Sheriff. He was inordinately attached to his money which he carried around in a red bag which earned him the nickname - Shon bwtsh goch - (John of the red pouch). He also owned Haythog, and his son William of that place was High Sheriff in 1646. Ffynnongain was acquired by the Scourfields of New Moat, and Henry Scourfield was owner in 1786. By 1873 the owner of Ffynnongain (132 acres) was W. G. Purser. Some 600 yards from the house was a holy well believed to possess healing qualities.

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Newport         (057392)     (Jottings)     

Lies on Fishguard to Cardigan Road where the River Nevern flows into Cardigan Bay.

Once the chief centre of the barony of Cemais, this is a Norman town in the heart of the Welshry with a Norman castle (much modified and now used as a private residence), the church (with a solid Norman tower) and the old mills which used to depend upon water power. The town dates from the late12th century and the regularity of its street-pattern confirms the documentary evidence that this  was a planted borough created within the lordship of Cemaes.

It is not known if this new borough displaced an existing Welsh vill as was sometimes the case. The traditional Welsh name for Newport is Tref-draeth, which denotes a settlement on the sand, and it has been suggested than an earlier settlement existed by the shore at Parrog which has since been lost through sand encroachment.

The Normans had originally chosen nearby Nevern as this districts caput, but the castle there was destroyed by the Welsh in 1191. William de Tours elected to build its successor on a new site half a mile inland, and within two years it was comp1eted.

The town was given a charter before 1215 by William de Tours who built the Anglo Norman Borough and ancient traditions are still preserved. This Charter was confirmed by his son Nicholas and gave the burgesses the right to appoint a Mayor in consultation with the Lady or Lord Marcher, an unique privilege which continues to this day.

The Court Leet meets regularly, and the Mayor has to perform various duties during the year. One of these is to ensure that the parish boundaries are in order, and the annual Beating of the Bounds ceremony takes place during August.

The Newport area is well blessed with prehistoric monuments and remains. Iron age camps, Flint working sites the remains of a drowned forest of 5000 BC  and the cromlech called Carreg Coetan which  is located in the town, incongruously fenced off at the edge of a small housing estate.

Parrog is a part of Newport tourist industry  which is now of great importance to Newport, and the town is able to capitalise on its wonderful scenic resources - river estuary, Traeth Mawr (the finest sandy beach on the North Pembs. coast), sand dunes, magnificent sea cliffs, wooded valleys, and the rocky eminence of Carningli as a backdrop.

Newport, ranked among the largest of the medieval Welsh towns functioning as the head of the independent lordships of Cemaes. The lords exercised jura regalia rights within their own territory and their own gaol and gallows were located just beyond the town near Cnwcau Farm on the Penfeidr road.

A borough rental of 1324 realised 46s., which, if the burgages were let at the standard 1s. each, meant only 46 plots but there are reasons for assuming that this was a serious underva1uation  as one hundred years later and extent of 1434-8 gives a detailed list of the burgesses and their holdings and what street the plots were on. There were a total of 223 plots, 20 of the south side of West Street beginning near the stream called Warentrelak and running east towards the castle; 20 off Bridge Street; 24 along Goat Street; and 11 along Vicus Mabudrud, Long Street 88, and St Marys St 59.

The lords mill, mentioned in 1275, stands along the Afon Felin immediately below the castle, while on the east side St. Marys churchyard was originally much smaller and burgages lined its northern edge. Adjoining was the old vicarage, known locally as The Court, which remained until 1800 although some vestiges were still visible 30 years later when Lewis visited the town. North-west of the church at the junction of Church Street and Bridge Street stood the small market-place, while immediately north on the west side of Long Street was the town hall, although the building had ceased to be used for administrative purposes by the late 16th century. Finally, at the end of West Street, near Warrentree Lake was an area set aside for use by the town potters. Two kilns dating from the late 14th and early 15th centuries were discovered here in 1921 by workmen laying the foundations of the Memorial Hall.

By 1594 all but 50 of the 233 burgages recorded in 1434 had fallen into decay and stood untenanted, even the towns weekly market had ceased to be held. The reasons behind this sudden decline are unclear, and the evidence conflicts with the traditional view of 16th-century Newport as the centre of an important woollen industry with its port. The development of Fishguard during this period is said to have resulted from the migration of many Newport inhabitants fleeing from plague, and although the story has been described as a myth there may well be much truth in it, particularly since another outbreak recorded in 1665 (see plague at Haverfordwest and Dale and the bodies found at the building of the Cleddau Bridge) was sufficiently severe to cause the removal of the revived market to a village four miles away, where it was still being held in 1714.

Newport Castle - Tony Roberts 1989.

The first Norman invader in north Pembrokeshire was Robert Martin, who, not content with his estates in Somerset and Devon, was greedy for land in Wales. Landing first at Fishguard near the mouth of the Gwaun Valley, he later moved to Nevern and became the first Marcher Lord of Kemes. His grandson William married the daughter of the Lord Rhys who in 1191 ejected him from Nevern. William then built a castle at a new place, Trefdraeth (Newport) along with a town and church. Proximity to the sea, better than at Nevern, was probably a strong point in favour of the site.

The Marcher Lordship of Kemes passed to the Audleys, but twice in the 13th century the castle at Newport was destroyed by the Welsh. The present castle was probably built after these destructions.

 In 1543 the lordship was bought by a prosperous Welsh lawyer, the father of George Owen of Henllys, famous for his Description of Pembrokeshire. The Owens wanted the lordship rather than the castle, which was described as an utter ruin in mid 16c, but eventually the castle was restored and a residence made from the gatehouse by the Lloyds of Bronwydd in 1859.

The castle consists of a massive gatehouse flanked by two circular towers, the dungeon tower on the southwest and the Hunters tower on the northwest. The relatively vulnerable southeast side was protected by a large D-shaped tower. Adjoining this are the remains of part of the chapel and a vaulted crypt. A vaulted dungeon remains in the aforementioned southwest tower. The castle is privately owned and some restoration work is being done, after which there will be some access for the public. Part of the castle can still be viewed from across the road. The castle is in private ownership and viewing is from the surrounding area only.

Church  St Marys.  

Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales  by Mike Salter  1994.

The west tower is 16c. The chancel and nave have old masonry but no old features, although the nave is flanked by two bay chapels (or aisle transepts). There are fragments of a 14c cross slab. The communion table is 17C. There is a Norman Font and in the Churchyard a stone with a ring cross on in suggested to be from the 7C.  

R. Fenton Pembrokeshire 1810  edition 1903 p 299.

The church is cruciform in building, consisting of a nave, chancel and cross aisles, roofed in old oak. The nave is separated from the chancel and the aisles by plain pointed arches. There was a rood-loft in the memory of some old people handsomely wrought and gilt. It has been said there was an organ, but that I doubt.  

RCAM Pembroke 1914 No 821.

In the years 1834-5 the church was enlarged and a gallery built. In 1859 Arch Camb. found the church had undergone so many alterations that little then remained of the original edifice. It was again restored in 1878 when the only portions then retained were the tower, font, holy water stoup and rood-loft stairs at the left hand side of the chancel arch.

Churchyard enlarged 1886.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

This rectory was appendant to the barony of Kemes. In 1326 the advowson of Newport, of the yearly value of 12 marks, with other advowsons and knights fees was assigned to James de Audele, kinsman and coheir of William, the son of William Martyn [Lord of Kemes.] -  Close Rolls.

Described as Ecclesia de Novo Burgo, this church was assessed in 1291 at £8 for tenths to the King. - Taxatio.

Newport. - Ecclesia ibidem ex presentacione ejusdem domini de Awdeley unde Willielmus Davis clericus est rector valet cum gleba communibus annis £16. Inde decima 32s. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading  “Livings Discharged”:- Newport Trefdraeth R. (St. Mary). Dom. de Audley olim Patr.; Anne Lloyd, widow, 1714; John Laugharne, Esq., 1735; Thomas Floyd, Esq., and Anne his wife. 1759. Clear yearly value, £44. King’s Books, £16. - Bacons Liber Regis.

On 30 July, 1878, a faculty was granted for the restoration of the parish church.

On 6 June, 1903, a faculty was issued for the erection of a memorial tablet with a medallion in memory of the late Mrs. Alderson in the parish church.

Two pilgrimage chapels, called Capell Dewy and Capell Kirick are mentioned, in George Owens list of such edifices as being in Newport parish. - Owens Pem.

Old stepping stones used by the pilgrims on their way to St  David’s still visible in the river by the bridge at low tide [but be very careful trying to cross using them - I tried and slipped off one and fell in the river causing much amusement].


Was once a thriving fishing and sea trading community but the estuary has now silted up.  The remains of old warehouses as still there one converted into a sailing club house  and there are many fine old houses showing that it was once a prosperous community many of them belonged to retired sea captains.

1 mile south of Newport - Carningli Common. Undefended Settlement.

The hill slope around the hill fort of Mynydd Carningli is covered with the remains of undefended settlements which comprise hut circles and associated field systems. These monuments are difficult to date in the absence of excavation and may range in date from the bronze age to the post Roman period.

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Newton North    (SM 066133)    Jottings   

The pointed chancel arch on simple imposts dates the nave and chancel to c1200. The west tower and north windows are 16c. The church was a ruin in 1910.

The name of the parish is now Newton North but the Welsh name of Newton seems to have been Llys Prawst - Owens Pem., Pt. 2, p. 294.

Bishop Bernard, who held the bishopric of St. Davids from 1115 to 1147, granted, with certain reservations, by a charter, which is undated, all the land of Lispraust with the church, to the Church of St. Mary of the abbey of Camays [St. Dogmaels] and the monks there. - Stat. Menev on the dissolution of the monastic houses it came into the hands of the Crown.

In 1291 the church of Lyspraust was assessed at £2 the tenths payable being 4s. - Taxatio.

No detailed valuation of this benefice is given in the Valor Eccl., but that authority in its list of the churches and chapels appropriated to the abbey of St. Dogmaels mentions  Ecclesia de Llysprance et Newton per annum 23s. 4d. Newton is not referred to in Bacons Liber Regis.

Newton was united with Minwear to Slebech by an Order in Council, dated 4 Mar., 1844.

The church of Newton is now in ruins; so far as can be ascertained from the church records, services were discontinued there about the time that the living was united to Slebech.

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Neyland and Llanstadwell  See Llanstadwell

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Nolton                          (867182)    Jottings   

Acc/to South Pembrokeshire Place Names - P Valentine Harris.

Nolton. Originally Old Town, the n being attracted as in Nash and Narberth.  

Nolton (860186). The village is a little way inland. It has a bellcote church dedicated to St Madoc containing an effigy of a Knight and Norman carved stone bracket but not much else of interest. Nolton Haven is a popular holiday beach, but visitors are probably unaware that this was once a coal-exporting beach. Note the remains of the old coal quay, built in 1769. Traces of the long-abandoned coal mines can be found all over the area; some of the coal workings ran far out under the sea.

Nolton itself is one mile inland from Nolton Haven.

Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales  by Mike Salter  1994.

In the rib-vaulted porch is an effigy of a late 13c knight with his head on a pillow. The nave walls and font may be of c1200. The chancel has been enlarged and is dated 1789 & 1878.

Acc/to Medieval Buildings - published by Preseli District Council.

Nolton Rectory encapsulates early vaulted cellars as the present ground floor of a more recent structure.

Burkeley Philipps Esquire.

The third son of the Good Sir John 4th Baronet and the younger brother of Sir Erasmus 5th Baronet and Sir John 6th Baronet.

He married Philippa Adams of Holyland Pembroke. Although in the family traditions he was of minor importance, being a younger son, the whole future of the Picton Estate stems from him. He had no children from his marriage but after the death of his wife he was reputed to have adopted an illegitimate daughter by a woman named Maria Philippa Artemisia and gave the young girl the surname Philipps. Her real name was Mary Philippa Artemisia.

Bulkeley Philipps died in 1776 and after his death she married James Child of Begelly and she herself had a daughter whom she named Maria Artemisia. She died in 1786. Her daughter Maria Artemisia, married the son of the Vicar of Roch and Nolton, the Rev. John Grant, who succeeded his father in these livings.

The father, the old Vicar, had been mad for some years. This John Gant was said to have been the man who invented what was called the yard wheel for measuring distances and he was looked at askance in the Haverfordwest of that time running behind his peculiar wheel. Their son was named Richard Bulkeley Philipps Grant.  This boy’s father, the Rev. John Grant,  in addition to inventing the measuring wheel gained a great deal of notoriety because of his condemning those of his parishioners from Roch and Nolton who,  whilst looting a wrecked ship containing a cargo of Gunpowder on Druidston Sands caused it to blow up,  killing many and blinding others.  He was said to have declared openly that it was an act of God punishing them for their wickedness.  

Maria Artemisia, upon the death of her first husband,  the Rev. John Grant married as her second the Rev. Alexander Gwyther,  the Vicar of Yardley in Worcestershire. By him she had a second son who later became the Rev. James Henry Alexander Gwyther, Vicar of St Mary's Church Haverfordwest.

Richard Burkley Philipps Grant and his half brother, the Rev. James Henry Alexander Gwther,  in turn,  inherited the vast Picton castle estates,  both changing their surnames to Philipps, thus causing those of closer relationship to become disinherited.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

The patronage of this church, which was then called the church of St. Madoc de Veteri Villa, was granted by Thomas de Rupe [de Roch], the son and heir of John de Rock, to Pill Priory. - Dugdale  Monasticum.

In 1594 the benefice of Nolton is said to have been appendant to the manor of Nolton and Perott was then the patron. - Owen's Pem. It, however, seems that this must have been an error on the part of the Pembrokeshire historian, as the right of patronage had been granted to Pill Priory by Thomas de Rupe, and an advowson once sold was never again attached to a manor. See Blackstones Comment  Bk. II., ch. 3. Moreover, although the post mortem inquisition, held in 1503 on the death of Sir William Perrott of Haroldston, Knt., states that the deceased owned the manor of Nolton, which he held of the barony of Roch by knights service and suit at the court of Rock, no mention is made of his holding the rectory of Nolton, while the Valor Eccl., which was taken in 1554, distinctly states that the prior of Pill was the patron.

It therefore seems probable that the rectory was held in gross, that is to say not appendant to any manor and that on the dissolution of the monasteries it came into the king’s hands. It is significant also that there is no record of any presentation by either the owner of the manor of Nolton or of Roch, and that the only presentation apart from those made by the prior of Pill and the King, was made in 1554 by William Philipps of Picton, Esq. (son and heir of John Philipps of Picton, Esq.), who is distinctly stated to have been the patron for that turn under a grant from the Prior and Convent of the late dissolved priory of Pill.

Described as Ecclesia de Veteri Villa, this church was in 1291 assessed at £8 for tenths to the King, the sum payable thereon being 16s. - Taxatio.

Norton. - Ecclesia ibidem unde prior de Pulla est patronus. Et ibidem Thomas Wogan est rector habens mansionem ibidem. Et valet fruetus hujusmodi per annum inje xiijs iiijd. Inde sol in una pensione priori de Pulla per annum iiip. Et in visitacione ordinaria quolibet tercio anno xijd. Et in wisitacione archidiaconi quolibet anno pro procuracionibus et sinodalibus vs ixd. Et remanet clare £4 2s 7d Inde decima 8s. 3d. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Nolton alias Knowleton R. (St Madoc) Pens Pri. de Pulla, 4s. Ordinario quolibet tertio anno, 1s. Archidiac. quolibet anno, 5s. 9d. Prince of Wales; Prior de Pulla olim Patr. Clear yearly value, £28  £40  Kings Books, £4 2s. 11d.  Bacon’s Liber Regis.

On 30 July 1868, the livings of Nolton and Roch were united under an Order in Council.

On 21 October 1876, a faculty was granted for the alteration and restoration of the parish church.

The following extracts relating to the alterations, etc. of the church are from the Parish Register of Nolton:-

In this year [1789] the chancel was new roofed and ceiled and plaistered. A new window put into the eastern end, and the side walls that projected beyond the end, taken down: which wraps had been left in a ragged state ever since the chancel was restored (by Mr. Davies, a former rector, nearly one hundred years ago) by a faculty, and the pine end built on the vault where the rectors have been buried.

The yard wall was repaired and plastered and a new gate made in 1789.

1801. The arch between the nave and chancel this year widened and raised, being before low and narrow, obstructing the view and sound. The reading desk and pulpit also removed four or five feet from the westward. All this at the expense of the rector, Moses Grant.

The sycamore trees were planted in Nolton churchyard in spring of 1824 and 1825, and a few elms and poplars in 1827 by Francis Warlow, school master, by and with the consent of the Rev. George Harries, the rector.

A paper document attached to the old parchment register of Nolton states that at a vestry meeting held on 23 Feb., 1767, it was agreed that no one on any account whatsoever should be buried within the church of Nolton.  

The vicarage at Nolton is a most interesting old house, and the following details, given by Rev. J. W. Reese, the late vicar. The front door of the vicarage opens into a hall, which has a stone-vaulted ceiling; the room on the left hand of the hall has also a stone-vaulted ceiling, and the end wall, opposite to the window, is built concave to the room, but both of these vaulted ceilings are now concealed by plaster. The kitchen, which is behind the room referred to, has also a stone-vaulted ceiling, and the old main walls of the house are 43 inches thick. Mr. Reese added that Bishop Basil Jones, after inspecting the vicarage, expressed the opinion that the old part of the house was at least 500 years old.

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Nolton Haven                            [Jottings]

Once a coal  exporting beach. Old coal Quay built in1769. Colliery buildings including the old Counting House remains at the end of a tramway. Much of the coal was mined at Trefan.

Cliff Colliery about 1/2 mile north was also exporting via Nolton Haven. It was  worked from 1850 to 1905 to exploit coal seams beneath St Brides Bay. There are dangerous traces of old coal workings; some travel under the sea and are as deep 300ft. Many on the old workings are flooded and the sites of some of the very early ones unknown.

Remains of Tudor workings and bell pits also to be found by the unwary.

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