Weights and Services.
It is difficult to give some idea of the amount of land involved as the actual measurements varied.
According to The Local Historians
Land retained by the lord of the
manor for his own use and upon which tenants gave free service according to the
customs of the manor.
A Knight's Fee depended upon the
quality of the land and was the amount required to support the knight and his
family for one year. Usually between 4 and 48 Carucates (or Hides).
Acc/to Owen a knights fee is 640
acres and 5 knights fees held of the Earl of Pembroke were a barony.
A Carucate again depended upon the
quality of the land, it could vary between 60 and 180 acres and was the amount
of land that would support a family and could be ploughed in a year using one
A Memorandum in the Black book of
St David's - (was it added in 16c? - the introduction to the Black book would
suggest that in the manuscript a " memorandum is given," so whether or
not it was in the original manuscript could be questioned.) States that a
carucate or hide of land contains 80 acres.
Acc/to Owen it was 64 acres.
An 1/8th of a carucate (also given
as 20 acres)
A Bovate consisted of between 7
and 32 acres
The memorandum in the Black book
of St David's - states that:- A bovate of land contains 7 acres.
Acc/to Owen 8 acres equals a
Margaret F. Davies [] suggests, from evidence in the
survey of Lands of the Bishop of St David's (1326), that a bovate was equal to 7
acres, a carucate equalled 80 acres and that this was the approximate size of
the normal farm, 8 carucates was the equivalent of a knight's fee approximately
one square mile of land.
The acre had been standardised by
Edward I as being equal to 4840 square yards although previously it had been the
size of the strip that could be ploughed by a yoke of oxen in a day.
The English virgate was a quarter
of a carucate = 2 bovates.
But it would seem very doubtful if
the virgate mentioned in the Black Book was that size as on one occasion a
person is listed as holding 3 acres and 7 virgates which would indicated that an
acre was somewhat over 7 virgates.
Welsh measure - Customary acre -
here again there appears to be a discrepancy as the Black Book of St David's
says that a person held an acre and a stang,
so a stang would appear to be certainly less than an acre and from other
entries it would appear that it is about a quarter of an acre.
There is also a suggestion that
the easements actually relate to the different plots that a person held.
Each tenement contains a stang,
(Black Book of St David's - see Llamphey).
Acc/to the Black Book of St
The nature and size of a burgage
tenement varied in size from Town to Town. It ought strictly to have included a
house with a certain quantity of land but from the Black Book it would seem that
in Wales, where a garden is mentioned as a burgage tenement in St Davids, a
house was not always an essential part. The strict English rule was that a
burgage tenement included a hearth therefore a house. The rent was a fixed sum
irrespective of the size of the tenement although very often there was a
variation as one burgage holder acquired part of another tenement. The map of
the burgages of Pembroke town in medieval times, which illustrates Brian Paul
Hindle's article on Medieval Pembroke, [] shows plots of various sizes.
Would appear from mathematical
calculations to be equivalent to a stone.
appear to be equivalent of lb.
"payers of quit rents" []
The mark originally was valued at
128 silver pennies (10s 8d) but was valued during this period at 13s 4d.
First issued in England by Edward
III worth about 6s 8d.