C

Caerbwdi, Caldey (Island), Camrose, Capel Colman, Carew, Carn Meini, Carreg Samson, Carreg Wasted, Carswell, Castell Coch, Castellan, Castle Flemish, Castlebythe, Castlemartin, Cilgerran, Cilgwyn, Cilrhedyn, Clarbeston, Cylch-Bychan, Cylch-Gwaelod-Y-Wlad, Cylch-Mawr, Clydey, Coedcanlas, Cosheston, Creswell Quay, Crinow, Croesgoch, Cronware/Crunwear, Crymych, Cwm-yr-eglwys.

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Caerbwdi

Small bay near St Davids. The purple sandstone used in the construction of St David's Cathedral was obtained from the quarry here.

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Caldey (Island)

Caldey Island is famous for the Monastery and Monks who have lived there. However, the history of human occupation on the island goes back much further. Flints, blades and penknife points have been found in caves on Caldey Island, indicating that humans occupied the area 12,000 years ago. However, at that time the sea level was lower, so the coastline would have been further out and Caldey Island would have been a hill in the Bristol Channel plain. The island was also occupied during later periods, and Stone Age bones have been analysed to investigate what people were eating. The Mesolithic bones suggest a very high sea diet - up to 70% of the diet - but by the Neolithic, they were not eating fish. This provides strong evidence that the transition from hunting and gathering to farming happened quickly - possibly within a hundred years. However, it is not clear whether farming was brought in by people from other parts of Britain and the continent or whether it was adopted in the Neolithic age by local people. 

Island is the natural breakwater for Tenby harbour - about 450 acres consist of highly productive land and there are about 100acres of foreshore. 

Has been called the Island of Saints. As early as the 6c, if not before, it was the site of a monastery reputed to be an offshoot of the famous one at Llantwit Major - Archbishop Dubricius,(a descendant of the Roman Emperor Maximus[383-8] was said to spend Lent on the island and on the death of Abbot Piro or Pyr (the first Abbot) in 521AD he appointed a monk named Samson as the new Abbot. For a time St David, St Dyfrig, Gildas, Maglorius, Paul de Leor and Illtyd dwelt upon the island.

From the 12 to the 15c it belonged to the Benedictines of the congregation of Tiron. Upon the dissolution of the Monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII it passed into secular hands. In 1906 it became the property of an Anglican Benedictine community which was received into the Church of Rome in 1912 and in 1928 it was sold to the monks of the Cistercian Order from Chimay, Belgium. The Monastery (the Abbey of St Samson) is the principal building on the Island.

The village church is a small and very plain building possibly of Celtic Foundation The old Monastic buildings (St Illtyds Priory) date from the 13c. An interesting relic is an Ogham stone containing two inscriptions and dating from the 6th or 8th century. Viking name of Caldy meaning cold island. Old name Ynys Pyr (the island of Pyr) probably from the first abbot.

It is 2 1/2 miles south of Tenby and is one and a half miles long by two thirds of a mile wide 500 acres approx and is one of the few places in the UK where the Mediterranean snail Felix pisana can be found.

 

Abbey of St Samson - first Celtic monastery [6c]

1113 island given by Henry 1 to Martin de Tours, who gave it to his mother who handed the island over to the Benedictine abbey of St Dogmaels in 12c. Remained a priory of 12 monks until the Reformation. In 1500 the Priory had an income of under 100 or less than 6 religious.

When it was dissolved 1535 the land was granted by Henry VIII to John Bradshaw of Presteign whose family held it till 1612 after which it passed through many hands

In 1897 Rev. W Done Bushell, chaplain of Harrow school bought it. Restored Priory church and St Davids Church (parish church of the island built by the Benedictine monks 12c). East window in priory church is a memorial to his work.

1906 island sold to Benedictine Monks of the Church of England who did much building and restoration work.

1913 their Abbot and most of the monks went over to the Church of Rome.

They moved in 1928 to Prinknash Abbey and the island was sold to the Cistercians. The stain glass window of St Illtud in the south wall of the nave of the old priory church is by Dom Theodore Baily a Benedictine monk.

Interior of the Abbey was gutted by fire in 1940 and rebuilt ten years later, Coates Carter architect.

The church of St Illtyd claims to be the the oldest British Church now in Roman Catholic hands.

A memorial stone from 6 or 8c and has Latin and Ogham inscriptions crosses on its faces and in Ogham it says MAG---DUDR---INB; parts of the inscription are broken off. The latin Inscription is AT SINGNO CRUCIS IN ILLAM FINGSI ROGO OMNIBUS AMBULANTIBUS IBI EXORENT PRO ANIMAE CATUOCONI {AND BY THE SIGN OF THE CROSS WHICH I HAVE FASHIONED UPON THIS STONE I ASK ALL WHO WALK THERE THAT THEY PRAY FOR THE SOUL OF CATUONCONUS}.

It is feasable that the inscription refers to to the servant of Dubricius - meaning Piro - in about 750ad a cross and a latin inscription were added. The stone was discovered in the ruins of the priory in the 19c and then used to form the lintel for a window, later it was used for a garden seat.

St Dubricius (Dyfrig) set up the first monastery and Piro was appointed abbot. He is reputed to have enjoyed a drink or two and one night in about 520 AD he had one too many and on returning to his cell in a state of drunkeness he fell into the monastery well. When his fellow monks pulled him out they found he had drowned. In spite or may be because of this, he was still regarded as a saint. Samson was then appointed as Piro's successor. He tried in vain to curb the monks drinking habits. Finally, defeated, by problems of discipline he left Caldy and retired with some of the more temperate monks to Stackpole where they took over an abandoned camp - and Samson settled in a cave in the side of the headland.

 

The caves on the island were once inhabited in the Old Stone Age, one was Nanna's Cave. During quarrying many artefacts have been found including flint tools, animal remains and evidence of Middle Stone Age flint "factory". There is also a Bronze Age burial mound.

More recently,in 1780s John Paul Jones the American privateer is reputed to have repeatedly "watered" his frigate "Ranger" at Caldy Island.

 

St Margarets island only 2 acres in extent was broken off from Caldey by great storms about 1530; it has some remains of old buildings, probably monastic, which were converted into cottages for quarrymen during the last century.

 

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales.

CALDEY ISLAND, the principal of a cluster of insulated rocks in the bay of Tenby, and forming an extra-parochial district, in the hundred of Castlemartin, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (E.) from the main land: the population is returned with the parish of Penalley. This island, of which the ancient British name is Ynys Pyr, is about one mile and a quarter in length, and half a mile in breadth, and comprises upwards of 600 acres of land, lying on a bed of limestone, something more than half being in a state of cultivation. Owen, speaking of the fertility of the spot, describes it as abounding with corn; but he adds that "all their ploughs goe with horses, for oxen the inhabitants dare not keepe, fearing the purveyors of the pirattes, as they themselves told me." There are some large limestone quarries. Robert, son of Martin de Tours, founded a priory here in the reign of Henry I., which he dedicated to St. Mary, and made a cell to the abbey of Dogmael, to which establishment the whole of the island was granted by his mother. Its revenue, at the Dissolution, was 5. 10. 11. The remains have been mostly converted into offices attached to a mansion erected on part of the site, now belonging to the proprietor of the island. Among them is the tower of the ancient conventual church, which is surmounted by a stone spire, and forms a conspicuous object of picturesque appearance, imparting, with the rest of the ruins, an interesting and romantic character to this sequestered spot. An ancient chapel, about a quarter of a mile from the priory, was repaired a few years ago, and service is performed in it when any clergyman crosses from the main land for the purpose. A lighthouse, with a steady light, has been erected on the island, which is of great service to vessels entering Tenby harbour, distant about three miles.

Camrose    (927198).

Acc/to South Pembrokeshire Place Names - P Valentine Harris.

1324 Kameros  Welsh - cam rhos - crooked moor.

South Wales by  Wade 1913.

A parish in Pembrokeshire 4 miles north west of Haverfordwest. The church preserves a piscina, a sanctus bellcote, an early font and a chalice of 1574.

Archbishop Baldwin & Giraldius Cambrensis passed through the place on their way to St Davids in 1188.

Church - St Ismael

Arch Camb 4th series No 8 p 214

There are remains of the staircase which led to the rood-loft in the north wall of the chancel. The Chancel arch is pointed without any moulding. Width of chancel 17ft 3in. Chancel arch width 13ft 5in. Nave width 20ft 10in.

RCAM Pembroke 1920 No 110.

The church was very thoroughly restored in the year 1883. It consists of Chancel, nave and west tower. The chancel arch is sharply pointed. In the north wall are the remains of the rood stairs and facing the nave on either side of the chancel are two plain corbels which supported the loft.

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter (1994).

A scalloped Norman font lies in the long nave which has a rood-loft stair on the north side and a 15c south doorway. The chancel has a blocked 13c lancet, a 14c piscina, and a 15c south window. A 14c south chapel has been demolished and the single arches to the nave and chancel blocked up. The thin west tower is of uncertain date. The nave windows are of 1883.

There is a restored mill in the parish and the site of the motte and bailey castle was converted into a folly hill during the 18c.

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Capel Colman   St Colman Colman

RCAM 1925 - Church built 18c restored 1895.

Pembrokeshire Parsons - This living is now a perpetual curacy held in plurality with Llanfihangel Penbedw. It was formerly a chapelry, and so far as can be judged, was from 1394 to 1497 held with the chapel of Cilvowir, in the parish of Manordeifi; at all events the only references during that period to Capel Colman, or Llangolman, as it was then called, show that the custos or incumbent of the one chapel also held the other.

The Valor Eccl. makes no mention of this benefice, although it gives particulars of the chapel of Kileveweir. In 1594 Capel Colman was in the hands of the Queen, but about that period it seems to have been, at all events temporarily abandoned - Owen's Pem., Pt. 2, p. 297.

That the chapel was abandoned prior to 1721, so far as religious services were concerned, is plainly shown by the following extract: "here are some churches that are totally neglected, and that very rarely, if at all, have any service performed in them and which, if they are not converted into barns and stables, which is the case of many churches in England as well as Wales, do only serve for the solitary habitations of owles and jackdavrs; such are St. Daniels, Castelharn, Kilvawyr, Mounton, Capel Colman, and others in Pembrokeshire."  View of State of Religion in the Diocese of St. Davids about the beginning of the 18th Century, by E[rasmus] Saunders], D.D., published in 1721.

The tithes and ancient endowments of Capel Colman were presumably all seized by the Crown, but the church has gradually been re-endowed during the last two hundred years.

On 18th January 1895, a faculty was obtained for the restoration of this church.

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales - S. Lewis 1849.

CAPEL-COLMAN, otherwise, LLANGOLMAN, a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, hundred of Knlgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (SW. by W.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 142 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Newcastle-Emlyn to Narberth; and is bounded on the north by Llanvihangel-Penbedw, on the south by Penrith and Clydey, on the east by Cardiganshire, and on the west by Eglwyswrw and Llanvair-Nantgwyn. It comprises about 750 acres, of which sixty are woodland, and the remainder nearly equally divided between arable and pasture: the surface is undulated, and the scenery, embracing wood and water, picturesque and beautiful; the soil is dry, and the chief produce, corn, butter, and cheese. A rivulet, called the Dylas, runs through the parish.

 Knlwendeg, the seat of Miss Jones, (see Orielton/Monkton) an elegant mansion, erected within the last seventy years, is ornamented with a receding portico in good taste, and occupies the centre of an extensive demesne, beautifully laid out in plantations and pleasure-grounds, to which are entrances by two handsome lodges, more recently built; the lawn in front of the house embraces a view of some of the finest scenery in the county, including the luxuriant woods around Fynnonau. Miss Jones, and her brother, the Rev. John Jones, are the principal landed proprietors, and Pryse Pryse, Esq. is lord of the manor.

The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with 800 royal bounty; net income, 72: the patronage and impropriation belong to Miss Jones. The church, dedicated to St. Colman, from whom the parish takes its name, is a small neat edifice, erected in 1835, partly by subscription, and partly by a rate on the inhabitants; it is forty feet in length and twenty-two in breadth, and has a large gallery.

Carew

In 1602 Thomas Wiliems copied what he described as a very ancient manuscript. This manuscript had been part of the library of Bangor cathedral till the reformation. His copy is in the Peniarth collection. This manuscript contained Lessons and a Collect Commemorating St Deiniol. The lessons were used on the Saint's day, but do not describe the life and work of the Saint at Bangor.

Funny this because it seems very unusual for lessons on a saint's day,  especially a saint who spent most of his life in the area to commemorate his work elsewhere. And seem to predate the Norman Conquest by a good margin. If the Norman bishops could have changed these lessons they would have done so. Well what do these lessons have to do with Carew? The lessons describe St Deniol life on the hill above what is now Pembroke at his hermitage between 516AD and 535AD and one of them refers to his well and the healing.

"Again a certain woman from the district of Caerw (Carew), in the diocese of Mynyw, was so swollen  beyond measure that she could find no relief by any advice of physicians. At last, coming to the  church of St Deniol, and afterwards to the aforementioned well, and imploring the Saints help, she drank of that water so as to regain health and before leaving came to the entrance of the Church, and cast forth from her mouth, while many stood by and observed, three horrible worms, each with four feet, and the woman was made whole from that very hour." (I wonder whether the original said with four feet or whether it described the worms as four feet long?)

RCAM

Carew Beacon.

Sometimes called Hays or Hayes Beacon, stands on the Ridge-way at this point the southern boundary of the parish, on a field known as Beacon field, the hedge of the field being carried up to the mound.

According to the Rev. W. G. Spurrell, rector of the parish (History of Carew 1921 p. 69), "its height was increased in 1813 (probably was actually 1803 because it was then that it was selected as one of the four Pembrokeshire heights that warning beacons were to be lit on in the event of a French landing) for beacon purposes". The sepulchral origin of the mound was proved by excavations carried out by Mr. James Deaden in 1851, when, at the depth of about 5 feet from the original height, and 12 feet from the beacon level, and beneath a large flagstone, an interment was met with - "The portions of bone remaining were in a very decomposed state, like small powder, and intermixed with portions of sand and stone that had fallen from the sides of the grave. We found a fragment of a ring-shaped ornament, supposed to be made. of ivory, and a flint arrowhead, also a broken earthenware vessel, very crudely made, and slightly ornamented with lines.  The covering of the Kist was of a species of flag not know in this neighbourhood by the oldest inhabitant. The grave or Kist was about 2 feet, and the interment was nearly due west and east." (Arch. Camb. 1852 April 19l) All knowledge of the discoveries appears to be lost.

Williamston Mounds.

On each side of Rosemary Lane is a sepulchral mound, that on the north side of the lane being the larger and better preserved of the two. It has a base circumference of 250 feet and a height of 10 feet. It is formed of earth and small stones. 1910 it was disturbed for stone. The field on which it stands is known  as Trumpet Levs (tithe Schedule, Nos. 915, 917).

The second mound has a base circumference of about 200 feet and a height of 3 feet It stands about 500 yards directly south of the field called Butty Park (Tithe Schedule, Nos. 890-1).  About the year 1880, during drainage operations,  "human bones and metal arrows" are said to have been found beneath a stone slab. These objects were destroyed. The mounds are not marked on the 6 in. Ord. Survey  map.

Cuckoo Stones.

These are the stones of a cromlech which once stood on a field of Pincheston farm about 500 yards north-east of the house. The supporters have been forced from the upright by the growth of an ash tree. Four of them have fallen, the fifth though slanting dangerously, still sustains one end of the capstone. This stone is 6  feet by 5 feet and 2 feet in thickness; it shows a flat surface to the chamber and has a somewhat irregularly shaped top. The structure occupies a slight eminence and around it are some of the base stones of the covering cairn. It is not marked on the 6 inch Ord. sheet.

Stone Celt.

A stone Celt found at Carew was exhibited to the Cambrian Archaeological Association at its Tenby meeting in 1851 (Arch. Camb., 185l   ii, 334). Nothing could be learnt of its present locality.

Carew High Cross.

The well known cross which stands erect by the roadside, a few  yards from the entrance to the medieval castle. It was moved to its present position about 1922 as a result of road widening work  from a site which it had been moved to a hundred years previously and the original site is not known. In 1844 the cross was blown down and was reset in its socket by Rev Lloyd using lead from the old font.

The 11th century Carew Cross) is one of three fine early Christian monuments found in Wales - the others being at Nevern and Maen Achwyfan. The cross stands  guarding the entrance to Carew Castle. It may be described as a wheel headed cross on a tall shaft which is beautifully inscribed with intricate patterns. Its mixture of Celtic and Scandinavian influences hearken back to pre-Norman Wales, when the country was ruled by powerful, independent princes. The cross is inlaid with fine Celtic knot-work and interlaced ribbon pattern, its two sides displaying different variations. After years of controversy, the crude inscription on the cross was finally translated in the 1940s. The cross is a royal memorial. The inscription  "Margit eut rex etg(uin) Filius" commemorating Maredud ap Edwin, who became joint ruler with his brother of Duheubarth, the kingdom of Southwest Wales, in 1033, only to be killed in battle two years later. He was the great-grandson of Hywel Dda and was killed in battle when Cynan ap Seisyllt invaded Dyfed and Dheubarth. This cross was erected as a royal memorial soon after that date.

Park Rath.

A circular enclosure on a field known as Rath Meadow (Tithe Schedule, No 816) immediately south of Park farm. The rampart, which could never have been of military importances has been much disturbed; the bank is formed of mingled stones and earth There is a shallow ditch. The entrance is about 10 feet wide, and faces south. Mount Park, a field on the farm of Ford, may also have been named from the same earthwork.

Carew Castle

Carew Castle is justly celebrated as one of the most magnificent castles of south Wales. Its position is low-lying, but still prominent in the flat land around the tidal reaches of the Carew river. The castle stands at the end of a ridge at a strategically excellent site commanding a crossing point of the then-still navigable river.

The modern entrance to the castle is from the east, following the medieval route through the bailey, within which lie low grassy footings of the later medieval service buildings. These were protected by a gate house, a wall and a massive rock-cut ditch. Excavations have shown that this ditch was in fact a recut of a much earlier one, dug as part of a defensive system cutting off the ridge in pre-Norman, perhaps Iron Age times.

Little now remains of the earth and timber castle that was built here by the Norman Gerald of Windsor around 1100. It is first mentioned in 1212, when for some reason, King John seized it for a short time when passing through Pembroke on his Irish expedition. By this time it is probable that the first stone structure, the Old Tower, had been built to protect the original castle entrance.

In 1212 described as "the house of Carrio" [Rot Lit Pat 92b].

The son of Nesta, William adopted the name Carew. He died at the age of 70 and was succeeded by his son Raymond de Carew who had been taking part in the invasion of Ireland. His descendant Sir Nicholas de Carew, held high office in Ireland between 1284 and 1310 and accompanied Edward 1 into Scotland. He ravaged Galloway, and was present at the siege of Caerlaverock (Dumfries). The Roll Of Caerlaverock speaks of him as  "a valiant man of great fame".

His son John also did good service against the Irish and the Scots, and when he died in 1324, Edward III granted his widow , Joan,  "six tuns of wine a year during the Kings pleasure".

The son and namesake of Sir John fought in the French Wars, and in recognition of the prowess of his Welsh archers at Crecy, the black lion of the Carew crest carried a golden arrow.

His great-grandson another Sir Nicholas, who died in 1447 was succeeded at Carew by his son , Sir Thomas, whilst his fifth son, William married the heiress of Sir Hugh Courtney of Haccombe beginning the long connection of the Carews with the west country holding lands in Devon and at Camerton and Crowcombe in Somerset and were the ancestors of the present owners of Carew Castle.

The last of the older line to hold Carew was Sir Edmund, who mortgaged the estates to Sir Rhys ap Thomas in 1480.. Five years later both fought for Henry VII at Bosworth and both were Knighted on the field of battle. Sir Edmund was slain by a "gonne" at the siege of Touraine on June 28 1513 and was buried at Calais.

Sir Rhys ap Thomas entertained Henry at Carew after he landed at Dale but it was twenty seven years later that he held the most spectacular event at Carew - a tournament to celebrate his admission into the Order of the Garter.

After the death of Sir Rhys various people held Carew with little good luck.

In 1601 Sir George Carew, son of Dr. George Carew, Dean of Windsor , and afterwards Earl of Totnes wrote to Lord Burleigh that his  "grandfather , Sir Edmund mortgaged Carew Castle to Sir Rees ap Thomas, whose grandson Sir Griffith ap Rees, Sir John Perrot, and the Earl of Essex possessed it since. They all died attainted and two were executed, so I think that land will prove unlucky to all men that shall enjoy it, except it be a Carew".

In 1607 Sir John Carew of Crowcombe  took up residence at Carew and eventually bought back the estate. His descendants have remained in possession ever since although they ceased to live at Carew in 1687. the present descendants and owners are the Trollope-Bellews of Crowcombe Court.

Prof.. A. Hamilton Thompson observes (Military l. Architecture in England During the Middle Ages, p. 330):

At Carew, in Pembrokeshire, three stages in the development of the domestic ideal as applied to military architecture can be studied in close proximity. On the east side of the ward are the earlier domestic apartments, somewhat cramped and gloomy, with outer windows which, wherever they occur, as in the chapel and adjacent rooms, admit daylight very faintly. On the west side is the great Hall, built in the fifteenth century by Rhys ap Thomas, with its imposing porch-tower and entrance stair, a large and amply lighted room . on the north are the additions made in the sixteenth century by Sir John Perrott. The eastern rooms are those of a house within a castle: the Western hall is that of a house which, although military considerations have had no  part in its planning is still confined within an earlier curtain. On the north side, however, the curtain has been broken through and a series of apartments has been built out beyond its limits, proclaiming with their long mullioned windows piercing the walls from floor to roof that the day of castles is over.

 Carewe Castell. description  1531.

this castle standeth by the watersides nine miles from Milford Haven, and is built with hard stone, Severed in four parts or stories, with a quadrant court within the same, the east part  whereof containeth in length 160 feet, and the west part containeth in length without the castle 164 feet. the north side containeth in length 142 feet, and the south side in length 198 feet. And the court within the quadrant in length 86 feet, and in breadth 75 feet, within which court is a fair lavatory in the midst made of stone, and the water running out of pipes of lead in the top of the same.

The east part of the said castle with the two frontours adjoining to the same containing in length as is before said, hath in parts beneath and above these buildings:

First, the Hall there, containing in length 55 feet and in breadth 26 feet, with 18 steps leading from the ground to the hall.

Item, a chapel vaulted, a buttery vaulted.

Item a pantry, a cellar, a larder house, with 15 upper chambers and neither chambers there

All which buildings be covered with slate, and the walking places by the battlements leaded, and at the north end a high turret to view the country.

The west part of the castle:

First, 23 steps of stone leading up to the hall, with a porthole chamber at the hall door.

Item, a great hall there, containing in length within 81 feet and in breadth 30 feet, and of either side the hall a chimney, and in the midst a hearth of stone, and 15 feet in breadth at the upper hall is tiled with Flanders tile, which said hall is covered with lead.

Item, under the said hall a buttery vaulted of like length and breadth.

Item, a tower adjoining to the upper end of the hall, wherein is contained a low cellar with two chambers, one above the other, with winding stairs leading in to the battlements of the same, which tower is covered with slate and the walking place leaded, and is in compass round 100 feets with 8 steps in to the height of a little watch tower in compass 27 feet.

the tower at the South end of the hall, wherein is builded a cellar, two chambers one above another   and covered with slate, and the walking place leaded, which tower is in compass within the battlement 100 feet, and above the same n little turret compass 24 feet, with 11 steps leading  from the battlements to the same.

The south side of the castle:

A tower builded square, containing in length 33 feet and in breadth 28 feet, wherein is builded  a larder house, a kitchen above the same, with half a loft over and a way leading in to the battlements, and at one corner a little turret.

The north side of the castle:

A story containing in length 60 feet and in breadth 25 feet wherein is contained two low chambers and a chapel over them and a way leading to the battlements thereof , with a little turret in the top of the same.

Item, before the east part of this castle there is a gate house builded four square with chamber over the same, and a way in to the battlements, with. little turret in the top.

This forefront of this said castle is double walled, with l dyke of 20 feet broad counter-mured.

The length of the base court is 225 feet and in breadth 189 feet, wherein is builded these edifices ensuing:-

First, over the South side of this court a house containing in length 87 feet, and in breadth 21 feet wherein is a stable of 60 feet long with a loft over the same, and a brew house of like breadth and 27 feet long, with a chamber over. And at the west end of the same a house called   bake house, in length 18 feet and breadth 15 feet, with a chamber over the same.

Item} over the south side the said court, a barn in length 75 feet and in breadth 30 feet - over the said south part a smiths forge, in length 33 feet and in breadth 18 feet.  All these houses covered with slate.

Items a stable nigh to the water, containing in length 128 feet and in breadth 20 feet, with a loft over the same.

The contents of the buildings of this castle within the quadrant, with the gate house:- 2 chapels 2 butteries vaulted, 2 pantreys, 2 cellars, 2 larder houses, 23 clambers low and higher 7 turrets.

Items there is belonging to this castle 2 parks walled, one of them nigh the castle and the compass thereof a mile, and the other park being a mile from the castle is in compass 2 miles-

(Pubs Record Office: Exchequer, Treasurer of theReciepts; Miscellaneous Books, Vol. 151, fo. 7.)

There can be little doubt that the additions of Sir John Perrott were made at the cost of considerable damage to the more artistic improvements of Sir Rhys ap Thomas His fall and tragic end, however, came before the work then in hand was completed. All the new buildings had been roofed, and some of the rooms had their windows glazed, but others were still unglazed.  He also increased the demesne which was about 136 acres by about 320 acres , 191 being added to the castle demesne, while a further 129 acres went into the creation of his new dairy farm at New shipping, just across the tidal creek from the castle. Most of the land 118 acres in all, was purchased from Lady Jones, 27 acres were bought from Richard and David Meredith, 14 acres from Henry Adams, and 9 acres from Hugh Owen, gent.: the rest of the newly acquired demesne lands seem to have been acquired from various customary tenements.

After Sir John Perrotts death in 1592, the castle and its demesne was granted upon lease to one Edward Webb, who conveyed it to Sir John Carew, both of whom successively appear to have resided there. The latter in turn conveyed his interest to Sir John Phillipps of Picton and Clog y fran near St. Clears, co. Carmarthen, to whom succeeded his son Sir Richard Phillipps. Complaints had frequently been made to the Crown authorities of the destruction wrought upon the castle by the successive lessees, and several Crown enquiries were held into the charges, as well as several suits brought in the Court of Exchequer by each outgoing lessor against his predecessor for waste for which he found himself liable. As an answer to the last of these brought by Sir John Carew (with whom was joined Sir John Williams, attorney general, as representing the Crown) against Sir Richard Phillipps of Picton, the defence produced the jurors schedule to a Crown surveyor taken in the eighth year of James I (1611), which specified the  "decays" then existing in the castle and attendant properties, with the estimated cost of restoring them at that date. The list is of considerable interest as showing how grievously the splendid edifice had suffered in the course of a few years. The schedule is as follows:

A particular note of the decays of Carewe Castle, the French Mills and New shipping dayrie, taken by vertue of a commission from His Majestys Court of Exchequer upon the 3rd day of April, anno., James of England, etc., 8th [1610].

The decays of the lead and timber of the great hall                                  39  0s  0d      

...   ...  ...   ...  ... great bay window in stone and glass                                11  18s  0d

 ...  ...   ...  ...   two chambers at the upper end of the great hall                7  2s    3d

 ...   ...  ... ...   two chambers at the lower end of the great hall, in the roof and glass  6   18s  2d

The bower at the east end of the new buildings, decayed                       4  0s   0d

The decays in the new buildings             ...                                             66  2s  0d

The decays of the dining chamber          ...         ...         ...                     33  0s  0d

The decay in the bell chamber   ...         ...         ...         ...                     1   1s   9d

The decay of Sir Thomas Perrotts chamber      ...         ...         ...         16   19s  3d

The decay of the vault chamber ...   ...                                                   0    9s   4d     

            pastrie under the kitchen, and the kitchen                                2  14s  4d

            porch chamber ...   ...   ...   ...   ..                                                  3  9s   2d

            bridge under the gate house..    ...         ...         ...                     2  0s  0d

The decay in the water pipes, cisterns, and conduits belonging to the castle 97  13s  4d

The decay of the stable             ...         ...         ...                                     53   10s  0d

            brew house       ...         ...                                                             1     10s   0d

            bakehouse        ...         ...                                                             6      0s    0d

            slaughter house ...         ...                                                             1      0s    0d  

            poultry house    ...         ...                                                             4      0s    0d

            falconers house            ...         ...                                                 1      10s  0d

            barn     ...         ...         ...                                                               1       0s   0d

            new orchard wall          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...             12     10s  0d

  waste of the grove of wood growing near the castle ...                         43      0s    0d

            the French Mills ...   ...  ...  ...   ...  ...                                            80      0s    0d

       Mill Park wall   ...         ...         ...         ...                                         49      0s    0d

         New shipping farm        ...         ...                                                  16      0s    0d

   Williamston Park wall and lodge ...                                                    82      10s  0d

            sheep cote                                                                                    8        0s    0d

The evidence given at Carew on the 24th April, 9 Ch. I, in reply to interrogatories in the suit of Sir John Carew and others against Sir Richard Phillipps, gives a sad picture of the depredations to which the castle had been subjected since the attainder and execution of Sir John Perrott.

John Will, of the parish of Carew, yeoman, aged 40, deposed that he knew the castle, the farmhouses of New Shippon Deyrye [dairy], where those of Somerton do lie though he was never there, and the mills adjoining the castle commonly called the French mills, and did know a bridge made with lime and stone which he conceiveth to be the bank or wall mentioned in the interrogatory, and the two parks known as Mill park or Carew park, and Williamston park.

William Barlow, of Creswell, esq., aged 61, spoke of the occupation of the castle and premises by Sir John Carew some fifteen years previously and the succession of Sir John Phillipps, bart., deceased. At the time of Sir John Carew's death the castle was in decay, and some of the lead, timber, windows and glass were also in decay, and some of the lead pipes through which the water was formerly brought to the said castle had been taken away. The new buildings which, as he believed  were never finished, are now a great deal more in decay than when Sir John Carew, one of the complainants left: the timber and roof, glass windows and iron bars of the windows of the two towers near adjoining to the great hall [the north-west and south-west towers] are more decayed. Prior to Sir John Carew one Edward Webb occupied the castle premises, in whose time decays, wastes and spoils were committed.

Thomas Howell, of Llanboydye, eo. Carmarthen, aged 30, deposed that the defendant's steward had deliver to him being a joiner, ten oaken planks brought forth out of the castle, which were converted to the use of the said Sir John Phillipps, deceased, and turned into rails for wainscot for 8 windows at the then dwelling house of the said Sir John Phillipps at Clog - y - Fran in the county of Carmarthen.

John James, of Carew, shepherd, aged 54, said that a year before Sir John Carew gave up occupation (about 14 years since) all the roofs of the old hall, and the roofs of all the new buildings were covered with lead, but whether all the leads were sound and whole to defend wind and weather he knew not. At which time also some of the windows were glazed, and some were in decay. In  Sir John Carew's time water was conveyed from the head of the well through pipes of lead into the kitchen. The brew house is fallen and utterly decayed in the time of Sir John Phillipps which in the time of the precious occupier was supported by"strods and propts".

John Bartlett, of Carew, smith, aged 50, deposed that in the time of Sir John Phillipps he saw therein the castle two carriages for ordnance which wanted wheels, but what is become of the same he knoweth not.

(Public Record Office- Exchequer Depositions, Pembroke, 9 Charles 1. , Easter, No. 3.)

The castle stands upon a small piece of rocky ground that rises a few feet  above a reach or pill of Milford Haven which flows within 100 feet of the north- Western curtain. There can be no doubt that the conformation of the site  governed the departures from strict regularity of plan that are to be found in the structure. The general plan was the simple one of a rectangle, deviating slightly from a perfect square, with towers at each corner. The space enclosed within the quadrangles called in the survey the quadrant court, measures midway about 90 feet from east to west and about 100 feet from north to south. The original buildings were doubtless ranged along the inner side of the curtains; these have disappeared entirely from the north and south sides of the court, having been cleared away from the former by Sir John Perrott to make room for his contemplated hall and galleries. On the west side much of the basement storey, above which rises Sir Rhys ap Thomas reconstruction, consists of the original building, though the chambers were probably altered considerably to adapt them to the new superstructure. The east side, where is the gateway, was least changed by both Sir Rhys ap Thomas and Sir John Perrott. The gateway was placed close to the south-east tower. As to this part of the castle, Prof. Hamilton Thompson account is as follows:- "The [south-east] tower at Carew, is at earliest of late 13th-century date, and has several advanced features. Though its projection from the curtain is regularly rounded, its inward projection is rectangular, so that its plan is actually an oblong with a rounded end. It seems to have been intended to have been used in connection with the gate house; its first and second floors had no direct connection with each other, but both communicated with the gatehouse, and the ground-floor of the gatehouse had a large lateral opening in the direction of the first floor of the tower. The corresponding tower at the north-east angle was used in connection with the domestic buildings and had a vaulted chapel upon its first floor, from the north-west wall of which open two rooms for the use of the priest, with a garde-robe in the second. One tower therefore, was purely defensive, additional precautions having been taken no doubt  to guard a postern which opens from the basement upon the scarp of the ditch; while the other was merely an annexe to one of the two dwelling houses within the enclosure."

Mr Cobb describes the chapel at length and  argues for an earlier date.

To the east of the hall is the chapel 36 1/2 ft by 17 ft. that is , exactly one -third smaller than the chapel at Manorbere It is vaulted, as is the crypt beneath, and had ribs of plain hammer-dressed stones, 10 inches wide, forming two bays and a half. The east end is a demi-octagon, having three lights; one at the east, and one on each of the north and south sides on the right of the entrance is the sandstone recess for the stoop. Between the east and south windows is the piscine, also of sandstone, evidently once highly finished, and most distinctly Early English; and on the corresponding face a plain aumbry. Between the north window and the door to the priest rooms is a good-sized built plain fireplace, clearly original; and at the west end, between the two doors, is an arched opening to the lower eastern hall, 4 feet wide and 4 feet high, similar to that which existed at Manorbere before the latter was converted into a door. The windows, apparently, were built up at the bottom, and widened, probably to admit Sir Rhys freestone but every vestige of it has now disappeared. Fortunately, however he built over the sill and one jamb of the original sandstone Early English window. This I have uncovered, and from it can be clearly made out the character of what it had been. The priest rooms consist of one chamber with a fireplace, and beyond it a smaller with latrine, all vaulted."

There can be no doubt that both the north and south angle towers, as also the east and west towers with their intermediate curtain, are portions of the original work of about 1270. The entire range of apartments backing upon the Curtain and looking out upon the quadrangle, including the connected rooms of the same level in the end towers, were reconstructed by Sir Rhys ap Thomas. So thorough where the alterations effected by Sir Rhys that it is difficult to ascertain what original features of the basement store he retained. He at any rate converted the entire space on the ground level between the towers into one chamber divided down  the centre by a row of nine piers, both compartments being vaulted [Mr. Hamilton Thompson thinks this basement chamber may have been used as stables, while Mr. Cobb, with greater probability, suggests it may have been  "for the use of followers". At the time of the Survey it was used as a buttery.]

The floor above Sir Rhys devoted to what must have been a magnificent apartment.  "It is," says Mr. Cobb,  "about 90 feet long, and nearly 30 feet broadly [actually 81 feet by 30 feet.] and had a timber high-pitched roof, the ridge of which was about 40 feet from the floor. At the south end is an arched recess with an elaborate window at the back not included in the alcove dimensions. This was probably the musicians gallery; and on the east side of the north end was a bow window projecting into the court Three lights to the west, which were Early English, were widened and filled up, both alcove and below with perpendicular freestone. The most northerly still shows the Early English jambs and seats."

Entrance to this splendid apartment was obtained by a flight of twenty-three broad steps from the courtyard which gave upon a fine porch leading to what the Survey calls  "a porthole chamber at the hall door." is The Survey adds that the chamber was warmed by two fireplaces, and that the  "upper hall or dais, was tiled with Flanders tiles. The towers at either end of the hall had each of them a cellar entered by a flight of steps from the buttery; above cellars were only two storeys, each floor having but one room, the lower floor communicating with the buttery, the upper with the grand hall.

The present south curtain, though doubtless in its foundations and lower courses of the earlier date, appears to have been reconstructed, possibly by Sir Rhvs ap Thomas. At mid-length is a square tower which does not accord with the angle towers, though it is battlemented and has a small turret. It contained the kitchen and larder, and its erection may have been occasioned by the alterations consequent upon the construction of Sir Rhys grand hall.

It is probable that when Sir Rhys ap Thomas, in addition to innumerable minor alterations, including the modernising of practical every window throughout the castle, transformed the basement chambers beneath his new hall into a buttery he provided his dispossessed followers with more comfortable quarters in the hall on the opposite side of the courtyard.

The outer or base court of the castle was occupied by stabling and other domestic outbuildings, as well as a smith forge, all of them additions of Sir Rhys ap Thomas. Water was! obtained from a well which supplied a stone cistern in the quadrangle.

Among Charles Norris drawings is a sketch of a beautiful wheel window that was placed near the entrance to Sir Rhys great hall and was in situ about the commencement of last century, but which exists no longer.

The changes effected by Sir John Perrott (d.1592).

The north side of the castle was practically entirely swept away, and its place taken by a grandiose conception, which, was never finished,. The destroyed buildings appear to have contained two long, low chambers, and a chapel; all of which may have formed part of the work of Sir Rhys ap Thomas.

Civil War.

The Civil War and Carew castle.

At outbreak of the Civil War the tenants of Carew Castle were the Phillipses of Picton [Parliamentarians] but it was held for King in siege of March 1644 and August 1645.

The castle was refortified and the angular redan for guns still survives as a low, grassy bank immediately outside the middle gate house.

In the first attack Laugharne approached Carew with a small party of troopers and a few foot soldiers. The castle was defended by fifty Musketeers and the Old Rectory was also garrisoned (Leach   History of the Civil War in Pembrokeshire and its Borders) Lieut. Jones commanding the castle garrison marched out to attack but Laugharne charged the musketeers capturing twenty of them including Lieut. Jones who afterwards served in the Parliamentary forces although Laugharne did not capture the castle or the Old Rectory and in the rest of his campaign just bypassed them.

On the 9th August 1645 after defeating the Royalist forces at Colby Moor and taking Haverfordwest Laugharne again appeared before Carew castle. Owing doubtless to the greater strength of the gateway and eastern curtain, additionally defended as they were by an outer wall and square tower, built by Sir Rhys ap Thomas for effect rather than for serious warfare, and, moreover, protected by a dry moat which extended for 30 yards in front of this outer wall, the Parliamentary leaders determined upon attacking the weak south wall. This they managed to breach, doing much damage to the interior face of the gatehouse and the immediately adjoining buildings. By 13 September Carew, Manorbier and Picton castles were all in Parliamentary hands.

A  "large cannon ball found in Carew Castle" was exhibited at Tenby in 1851 to the Cambrian Arch. Association by the Rev. G. N. Smith, then vicar of Gumfreston- At the same meeting Sir. Nicholas Roch exhibited "two small cannon balls, ploughed up in a field at Paskeston, within range of Carew Castle" (Arch. Camb., 1851, II, ii. 335) The were doubtless relics of the assault upon the medieval castle in 1644.

Carew Tidal Mill - The French Mill.

The present mill dates from 16 century and was first mentioned in 1541 but there was an earlier one on site.

From late 1700s until 1937 the Mill was constantly in use, milling barley, oat meal, wheat flour, bone meal and fertilisers. At one time there were two working water wheels, each driven by water as it was released from the mill pond. This pond was filled at high tide. The Mill and one wheel was restored by G Argent Builders 1972. I understand that the pegs on the Mill wheel cogs had to be made from apple wood.

Historic Houses.

The Old Rectory. Within a hundred yards of the parish church is a residence known as the Old Rectory, which name, there can be little doubt, correctly represents its former status. The original house may have been built at the time when Sir Rhys ap Thomas was engaged in modernising the neighbouring castle, that is, within the period 1490-15I0; but it probably suffered from neglect and want of repair until about the middle of last century when it was considerably altered and renewed. Fenton describes it about 1800 as  "of a singular appearance, having a square tower on one side through an arched opening, in which, now stopped up, was once the principal residence. It is a large, irregular building, a great part of considerable antiquity, unroofed, and in ruins" (Tour, p. 271). The low square tower, with its corbel table and newel staircase still remains it should be compared with the square tower in the south curtain of the neighbouring castle; and a portion of the embattled walls which surrounded the house has also survived.

Arch.Camb., 1877, IV, viii, 312; 1881, IV, xii, 238, ill.

Major Francis Jones records "Though now a mere farmhouse the place bears traces of considerable antiquity and appears to have been built with an eye to defence. The massive walls are corbelled out beneath the eaves of the roof which is pitched at a steep angle giving the old structure a picturesque appearance. The house has apparently formerly been enclosed within a walled precinct and a tradition tells of "the soldiers" having been quartered there in the turbulent days of old."

Ford.

A farmstead on Ford Pill between Carew Castle and Paskeston. In the 17th and early 18th centuries it belonged to the Philipps family, a branch of Picton Castle. John Philipps of Goodhook agent to his cousin Sir John Philipps, built the residence at Ford. He was agent in 1650 and was still acting as such in 1699. Sir John wrote a memorandum of what Privilege my cozen John Philipps had with me from Picton since 1650 and included among them are the following:  "I gave him as much timber as did build two parts of his house at Ford, and the use of my tenants to carry his slates from Llangolman to Picton Key, and my lighyter to carry them from there to Ford, and to carry his limestone from Williamston Park to Goodhook during the time he lived there, and to carry his corn and household stuff from Goodhook to Ford."

The Philipps family continued to own Ford for most of the first half of the 18th century. Edward Philipps of Ford died leaving a son and four daughters. John Philipps, the son, matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, in 1722, and in 1735 was High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire He died without issue, and the Ford estate passed to his sisters, coheiresses, Elizabeth, married John Smith of Jeffreston, Anne married John Relly of Pembroke, Mary married Reverend James Higgon of Haverfordwest, and Katherine married David Rice of London, apothecary. In 1786 John Smith Esq. is described as owner of Ford.

Freestone Hall.

A residence on high ground 1 l/4 miles north-east of Carew Castle.

Lewis in 1840 comments on the site as follows -  "Freestone Hall residence of J. Allen Esq. commanding from the grounds some of the finest views in the county, embracing Lawrenny and its fine estuary, Clareston, and the hundred of Rhos to the west."

The mansion, built by Roger Allen (1734-1782) second son of John Allen of Cresselly, is a three-storeyed main block with a wing stretching to the rear at one side. A good photo was taken of the house by C. S. Allen of Tenby in 1871. James Allen (son of Roger) presented a paten and flagon as a New Years Gift to the parish of Carew in 1844, and further plate was presented by Thomas Allen of Freeston Hall in 1886 in memory of his eldest son Captain Griffith Allen late of H.M. 98th Regiment.

 In 1910 Freestone Hall, an old House Mansion now used as a farm was advertised for sale; it comprised a porch, entrance Hall, dining room, parlour, kitchen, Pantry, a large back kitchen, and a dairy and outbuildings. There where 7 bedrooms 78 acres were attached.

Milton House.

A residence, half a mile north-west of Carew Cheriton church, marked on Colbys map as Milton House within grounds on the edge of Milton village. Comparatively modern, it was owned by the Revd. William Holcombe in 1786, with William Phelps as tenant. By the early 1830s William Bowen was living at Milton House, being the first of that family there which was to continue there for nearly a century and a half.

Lewis wrote in 1834: "Within the parish are several gentlemens seats of which the principal are Milton House formerly part of the extensive estate of Upton Castle, and now the property and residence of William Bowen Esq., an elegant modern mansion pleasurably situated within grounds".

William Bowen sister had married James Summers of Haverfordwest, Clerk of the Peace, and it was to his nephew, James Summers, he left Milton House. James Summers then added Bowen to his name; James Bowen Summers settled there and was High Sheriff in 1874. He was followed by his son Sutton Bowen Summers, who sold Milton House after World War Two. It is now a hotel.

Welston.

A modern residence of fair pretensions. It stands upon the site of an earlier house of the same name, occupied by a Mr. Cuney about the middle of the 17th century. Cromwell, on his way to the siege of Pembroke in May, 1648 is said, with much probability to have had his quarters here, and Fenton states that in his time a lady, who was a descendant of the family of Cuney, then possessed a quilted counterpane that covered the General's bed; white lined with crimson and stained with ink spilt as he was writing one of his despatches during his confinement in his room with gout (Tour, 373). An adjoining field is still known as Bowling alley.

Acc/to Major Francis Jones.

Home of the Cuny family. The present house stands on the site of an earlier house of the same name occupied by a member of the Cuny family in the middle of the 17th century. It was pulled down early in the 19th century. When Cromwell was besieging Pembroke he made Welston his HQ. According to Fenton  "there is a quilted counterpane of white linen that covered Cromwell's bed still in the possession of a lady, a descendant of that house, stained with ink spilled as he was writing one of his despatches during his confinement." The "confinement" refers to the tyrant's attack of gout which obliged him to stay in bed for a few days.

In the will of Richard Cuny of Pembroke dated 24th October 1627 he mentioned four of his farms which he left to his son Walter Cuny including Welshtowne (Welston). Walter was still in possession in 1638, and it was in Walter's time that Cromwell commandeered the house. Walter was Mayor of Pembroke when he died. His daughter married Francis Parry to whom there is a marble tablet in St. Mary's Church, Pembroke.

(Vide Thomas Roscoe s Wanderings and Excursions in South Wales, 1836, p. 154).

By the 18th century the Cunys had moved to Golden near Pembroke.

In 1834 the property, described as  "a substantial modern house" was the seat of George Donne (or Dunn) Esq. The Dunns still had it in 1873 but in 1904 John Evans was owner of the freehold.

The Parish Church dedi. St. John.

The Church has been restored, probably on several occasions, but its main constructional features show it to have been built in the late years of the 14th or early part of the 15th century. It comprises chancel (41 feet by 18 feet), nave (61 feet by 20 feet), north transept, known as the Carew aisle (29 feet by17 feet), south transept (16 feet by 10 feet), north and south aisles and west tower (25 feet square). The structure is usually regarded as the work of Bishop Gower (I328-l347) but, while much of the detail resembles the work of that bishop at St. David s, the building appears to be slightly later, and to have borrowed from the cathedral church some of Gower s ornamental features of the early half of the 14th century The tower departs widely from the local type, and is one of the few in the county having angle buttresses. The English proclivities of the Carew family, the early possessors of the castle, whose favourite place of residence was their ancestral Devon, are repeated throughout the edifice, both in its architecture and interior arrangements. there are several tombs and monumental slabs to departed Carews, ranging from the 14th to the 17th centuries.

See also Spurrell, History of Carew (1921).

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

At Carew there was a rectory and vicarage, the former being in the patronage of the Earl of Pembroke, and afterwards of the powerful Carew family, and the latter in the gift of the rectors of Carew. In 1594 the Queen was rector of Carew. - Owen's Pem.

The church was in 1291 assessed at 40. the tenths payable thereon to the king being 4. - Taxatio.

On 20 July, 1403, a commission was issued by the Bishop to Richard Wythlok to sequestrate the church and tithes of Carew during a vacancy.

Carewe Rectoria. - Ecclesia parrochialis ibidem ex present acione baron is de Cairewe unde doctor Vachan est rector haberls ibidem rnansionem et glebam et valent fructus et proventus hujus beneficii per annum xliiij. Inde porcio vicarii ibidem quolibet anno. Et in visita-eione ordinaria quolibet anno vjs. Et in visitacione archidiaconi pro sinodalibus et procuracionibus quolibet anno vs ixd. Et remanet clare cum porcione vicarii ibidem communibus annis, 43 8s. 3d. Inde decima, 4 6s.10d. - Valor Eccl.

On 24. July 1610, a lease of the rectory of Carew for 21 years was granted to Thomas Newsham of Abergwilly  Carms., gent. - Chapter Acts.

Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Carew V (St. John Baptist). Bishop of St. Davids Impr. and Patr. Clear yearly value, 14. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

ap Morgan                               1543            Kayrue              (Carew)             PRO 223/423    Churchwarden

Beynon              Richard         1543            Kayrue              (Carew)             PRO 223/423    Churchwarden

Clergy.

Rectors.

1382. Jan. 2.       Hugh de Cotingham.

1388. Dec 14.      John Carp.

1392.                   John Porter.

1403. Dec. 9.       William Webber, vice John Porter, deceased.

1461. Nov17.       Hugh Raglan.

1493. Oct,20.       John Barrett vice Hugh Rawlins, deceased.

1496. Aug. 2r      John Talley, vice John Barret, deceased.

1535 - 6 -                Dr.Vaughan.

Vicars

1403.                           John Bole.

1404. Feb. 28.             William John, vice John Bole, resigned

1482. Oct 10                Peter David

1482.                           John Watkin

1482. Nov. 5               David Veyn vice John Watkin resigned

1486                             Peter Coker.

1486. Jun. 2.                 Thomas Williams vice Peter Coker deceased

1491. May 13.               Lewis Tailor vice ....Thomas deceased

1492                             John Tasker  vice Lewis Tailor resigned.

1534                             Richard Joneys

1554. June 5                  George Radcliffe priest               

                                    Henry Williams - he was turned out of his living for drunkeness but presumably was restored to it later

1668 Aug 9                   Lewis Beddo vice Henry Williams deceased.

1718. Mar 12                David Thomas vice Lewis Beddow deceased

1735 Aug 5                   Thomas Edwards MA vice David Thomas deceased

1737 Aug 2                  John Andrews vice Thomas Edwards resigned

1743 Nov 14               Delabere Prichett vice John Andrews instituted to Prendegast

1801 Dec 22                John Rees vice Delabere Prichett deceased

1835 May 19               Gustavus Lodwick Hamilton MA vice  John Rees deceased

1839 Aug 27                William Beach Thomas MA vice Gustavus Lodwick Hamilton deceased

1842 Jun 22                 Henry Robert Lloyd  MA vice William Beach Thomas instituted to Aberedw

1845 Sep 19                John Phelps MA vice Henry Robert Lloyd resigned

1877 Dec 28                Hugh Harries Gibbon MA vice John Phelps resigned

1884 Mar 15                John Popkin Morgan MA vice Hugh Harries Morgan  instituted to Glasbury

1891 Mar 21                Joseph Polland Lewis vice John Popkin Morgan instituted to Llanfihangel Helygen with Llanyre

1911 Feb 18                William George Spurrell vice J P Lewis deceased.

Spurrel was the Vicar/ Historian whose History of Carew was  published in 1921.

1535 The Rector's living at Carew was valued at 44 annually. It was one of the most wealthy in the county.

Between 1689 and 1750 the roof of the church was substantially repaired with constant purchases of new slates and timber a description of 1831 suggests that it had a wagon roof which was replaced in 1838 and in 1725 the church was whitewashed.

1807 a singing master had been engaged to instruct the congregation in singing.

1834 A Chalice and cover were sold to a Salisbury Silver smith it weighted 23ozs 10dwt .  It was suggested that it was Elizabethan or Jacobean and was sold for 4s  10d per ounce. This could well have been the one described as a Communion Cup with cover of silver and double gilt in the inventory of 1547.

The Norman fort was replaced at a cost of 3  5s in 1836 by an exact copy of the original using limestone from Williamston Quarry.

1843 the two effigies in the north of the chancel were moved to their present position from the east of the porch.

In 1850 a new oak pulpit was installed and also a new reading desk.

1855 Restoration by G.G.Scott started.

1857 Carew Church restoration completed.

The Rood screen was removed by Rev Pritchett and the canopied oak seats at the west end of the chancel by Rev Rees.

The ancient  west window with its portrayal of the nativity was totally destroyed and replace by a memorial to those who had fallen in the Crimean war in 1857 at the same time most of the other windows which originally had been flat perpendicular were replaced.

The interior walls of the church had been limed brown, with, according to the Church accounts, stonework picked out in black.

1881 The tower was refurbished including having the roof renewed.

1888 The Chancel, nave and Carew aisle re-roofed.

In 1889 stucco was put on the interior walls of the Church.

In the churchyard is a chapel on a vaulted chamber which was originally used as an ossuary. and the vault was divided by a wall and occupied by two female paupers up to 1840

The parish registers go back to 1718 and their are Bishop's Transcripts dating from 1685.

Critchurch.

This is the site of a hamlet chapelry which is spelt Christchurch in the churchwardens accounts for 1672. It possessed the right of burial, and human remains  have been found in an adjacent quarry. (Spurrell, Hist. Carew 71).

Non Conformist Chapels.

Pisgah -- Baptist.

The chapel was part of the Moleston circuit but preaching had occurred in homes from an earlier time. In 1838 the membership was 60.

Messrs. William Davies (Cresselly), John Thomas (Oak Hill) Lewis Thomas, Thomas Nicholas (The Grove), Benjamin Phillip, (New Brittain), John Cole (Williamston), Benjamin Davies (Pencoed), and Abraham Prickett, who were the pioneers of this cause, held services for some time at Pencoed, the residence of Mr. Benjamin Davies.

 In 1819, these Baptists secured a plot of land about a mile from Pencoed, and erected a Chapel on the site of which the present Sanctuary now stands. The Church was constitutionally formed in 1820. It was fostered in its infancy by Rev. James Hughes Thomas, Waterholmes. He was succeeded by Rev. Enoch Price who was also minister of Molleston. Following him was Rev. Henry Evans, who ministered here for twelve years.

Another well-known minister was Rev David Phillips, who served this Church for twenty-three years: the first eleven conjointly with Molleston. He died in 1875, aged 72 years, and is interred in Molleston Baptist Burial Ground.

In 1875, this Church united with Martletwyn  and  Rev. Thos. Lodwig Evans, who was completing college studies at Haverfordwest. was invited to serve the Church His ministry extended for eight-years, He was succeeded by Rev Thomas Pandy John during whose three year ministry the manse was erected.

Other early ministers included Rev W M Morris, Rev Jesse Roberts and Rev S Howells.

The land for the Chapel Schoolroom, Dwelling House, Garden and Burial Ground were given by Henry Seymour Allen, Cresselly House.

In 1851 the return states that the general congregation is 200.

Carew Newton -Independent.

The Chapel was built in 1862 and it came under the direction of the minister of Horeb  Martletwy although previously it had been a branch of Bethel St Florence.

Nebo.

In the 1851 census an independent chapel called Nebo is recorded erected in 1836 and having an average attendance of 20 in the morning and 50 in the afternoon.

Carew  - Wesley Methodist.

This Chapel was built as part of the Pembroke Circuit in 1816 although a society was formed earlier probably  about  1807.

The return for 1851 gives and average congregation of 130 People.

Princess  Nesta.

Princess Nesta (Nest, Neste)was the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr ruler of much of South Wales who was killed in 1094 by Norman Knights employed by his cousin. She was reputed to be very beautiful and had numerous children by several men. The oldest was a son by Henry 1st while she was a ward at Court and he was appointed Duke of Gloucester. When the King married, Neste being at Court caused problems so he arranged that she should marry Gerald de Windsor who was appointed custodian of  Pembroke Castle. Neste held, as part of the inheritance from her father, large estates around Carew near Pembroke. A writer at the time said of her  "daughter and sister of a prince, wife of an adventurer, concubine of a King, paramour of every daring lover; a Welsh women whose passions embroiled all Wales, and England too, in war; mother of heroes grandmother of Giraldus Cambrensis". Another writer said Henry I was no more restrained in his passions than any other powerful ruler of the 12c. It made little difference to him that the beautiful Nest, daughter of the Welsh Prince Rhys ap Tudor, had been placed in his care as a royal ward; (she was William Rufus hostage for the good behavior of her family) he fell in love with Nest and seduced her, and she borne him a son". In those days, however, there was an accepted way of dealing with such a situation. Nest's baby son was named Duke of Gloucester. When Henry had to make a political marriage and his new wife had reservations about Nest at court, King Henry gave Nest in marriage to one of his barons, Gerald de Windsor - who was at that time in disgrace at court. Gerald took his new wife with him to South Wales.

Neste children family names.

FitzHenry: (father was Henry I) killed in battle against Owain Gwynedd in Anglesey 1157, had a son, Fitzhenry Justiciary of Ireland in 1199 (Visited by Gerald in that year).

William FitzGerald/Carew: William, son of Gerald de Windsor & Nesta adopted the style of "de Carew" although he could have been another  son of Henry I. One of his  sons  Baldwin de Carro took part in the Third Crusade in 1191.

Maurice Fitzgerald:  one of the principle leaders of the invasion on Ireland died 1176, in 1174 held the Castle at Wicklow and the county of Wicklow.

David FitzGerald: Bishop of St. Davids died 1176.

Angharad: married William de Barry, they had three children,  Robert de Barry, Phillip de Barry, Gerald of Wales (c 1146 -1223).

Robert - FitzStephen: seriously wounded in a battle against Owain Gwynedd after a sea borne attack on Anglesey 1157. 1166 Castellan of Cardigan Castle - betrayed to the Welsh under Rhys ap Gruffydd by a Welsh cleric  Rhigyfarch - was imprisoned but released in time to take part in the Invasion of Ireland in 1170. Travelled through Leinster with Dermot King of Leinster (Acc/to Geraldus in his book on Ireland.)

 

Fitzroy

 

Owain, eldest son of Cadwgan, who had seen Nesta at a Feast at Cilgerran Castle - she was his second cousin, - saw fit to set fire to Pembroke Castle in order to carry her of to Powys. Afterwards he was constrained by the King to restore her to Gerald de Windsor, he refused  she had two children by Owain.  Henry I  raised an army, invaded Ceredigion and devastated it. Owain escaped to Ireland - later he returned and succeeded to part of Powys but Gerald had not forgotten. While fighting side by side for the king against Gruffydd ap Rhys, Gerald and his men turned on Owain's men and slew Owain.

Gerald de Windsor ended his warlike career by dying peacefully at his wife's castle of Carew, (c1136) but his wife's career was not finished thereby. Though her children were now grown up and married, Nest still had her beauty - She transferred her affections to Stephen Constable of Caernarfon Castle  then to the Sheriff of Pembroke, presenting each of them with a son.

Sir Rice ap Thomas.

Sir Rhys ap Thomas, (1449 - 1525), the flamboyant and controversial Welsh military leader, who inherited the estates of Dinefwr, including Carew, on his father death. Thomas was the definition of Welsh chivalry. A brave lord and knight, fierce in battle and love, he played a major role in Henry Tudor victory over King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, a turning point in British history. Rhys was knighted on the battlefield and made Governor of Wales, by the now King Henry VII. By the time the Tudor came to power though, the age of chivalry was drawing quickly to a close. The last great Welsh tournament of knights was staged by Thomas at Carew in 1507. Spread over five days, the tournament drew over six hundred knights and retainers, with Rhys presiding over and judging the various contests. The sight was a marvel to behold. Chroniclers of the time wrote how the tournament was still the topic of conservation years after its conclusion.

He died at the age of 76 but although he left behind him only one son born in wedlock he had no less than 14 natural children most of whom founded or married into some of the leading families in South Wales.

Sir John Perrot.

Sir John Perrot was the reputed son of Henry VIII and Mary Berkeley  Maid of Honour at Court who later married Sir Thomas Perrot. Sir John was probably born at Haroldston in 1527 but later resided chiefly at Carew and Laugharne.

1577 During the reign of Elizabeth I the Privy Council sent an indignant letter to Sir John Perrot  cataloguing the misdeeds of John Callice  "whereas their Lordships are given to understand that one John Callice, a notable pirate frequenting that county and arriving lately at Milford, was lodged and housed at Haverfordwest, and being there Known was suffered to escape, their Lordships do not a little marvel at the negligence of such as are Justices in those parts".

Acc/to  Sir John Perrot - G Douglas James.

1527 Sir John Perrot born 1527 - natural son of Henry VIII,  to whom he bore a remarkable resemblance  in appearance, voice and temperament.  His mother was Mary Berkeley, a lady of the Court and wife of Sir Thomas Perrot, a direct descendant of one of the Conqueror entourage.  Born at Haroldston, near Haverfordwest noted for his abrasive manner,  swearing,  ungovernable temper, great strength.

1570, 1575, 1576 - Mayor of Haverfordwest.

1548-52 MP for Carmarthenshire.

1563-67 MP for Pembrokeshire.

1588    MP for Haverfordwest.

1551 High Sheriff for Pembrokeshire - later Vice Admiral for West Wales - part of his responsibilities was the suppression of piracy - but there is a strong suspicion that he shared in the proceeds.

Friend of Edward VI who made him a Knight of the Bath. Relationship acknowledged by Edward VI,  Mary and Elizabeth. Imprisoned by Mary for favouring Protestantism and harbouring heretics at Haroldson.

One of the four who carried the canopy at Elizabeth's coronation - she appointed him Lord President of Munster to quell the Desmond Rebellion.

He was one of the wealthiest subjects of the Crown and had a great love for Haverfordwest which he endowed with a grant of property.

1591 falsely accused of High Treason - denounced by it is believed by Thomas Cardarn of Prendergast - condemned to death but Elizabeth refused to sign the death warrant - she resolved to pardon him but before the pardon was signed he died in the Tower and was buried in St Peters Church there.

"SIR JOHN PERROT"

The Elizabethan Era was perhaps the most glorious in our island history and one in which we can take great pride.

It saw the first fruits of the three outstanding events, the Renaissance, the Discovery of America and the Reformation, movements which revolutionised the activities and minds of the people of the Western World and when the people of our country passed to maturity and awakening, and awoke to the possibilities of a more intense and adventurous life of development.

With Elizabeth as its head, Burleigh as its eminent statesman, Shakespeare as the prince of dramatists, Bacon the great philosopher, Philip Sidney and Spencer its outstanding poets; Raleigh, Drake, Frobisher, its intrepid sailors, our country produced a galaxy of talent which, perhaps, has never been surpassed.

During this era our own county was the birthplace of one who, although he did not attain the eminence of the above named figures. was a very remarkable man who played a prominent part in those stirring times both nationally and locally. He was Sir John Perrott! a natural son of Henry VIII, to whom he bore a remarkable resemblance in appearance voice and temperament. His mother was Mary Berkeley a lady of the Court and wife of Sir Thomas Perrot, a direct descendant of one of the Conquerors entourage.

He was born at Haroldston, just outside the Borough of Haverfordwest and he was, throughout his life, the Outstanding personality in South Wales. From his earliest years he was noted for his ruffling ways, his prowess in athletics, his great strength and courage, and notorious for his arbitrary ways and ungovernable temper.

He was Mayor of Haverfordwest in 1570, 1575 and 1576, Member of Parliament for Carmarthenshire, 1548-52, for Pembrokeshire, 1563-67 and Haverfordwest in 1588.

In 1551 he was High Sheriff for Pembrokeshire and (1584-88). later Vice-Admiral for West Wales in which latter office he was responsible for the suppression of piracy, but he undoubtedly shared the booty of many a valuable cargo.

He was a great friend of Edward VI, who made him a Knight of the Bath, and although nothing was said of any acknowledgement of his parentage the relationship was frankly acknowledged by Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth.

During the reign of Mary he was imprisoned for favouring Protestantism and harbouring heretics at Haroldston, but was released on her death.

Elizabeth granted him many favours. He was one of four who carried the canopy at her Coronation. She appointed him Lord President of Munster to quell the Desmond Rebellion, which he did in twelve months, and then returned to Haroldston and later to the Lordship of Carew Castle. Subsequently he was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.

In 1591 he was falsely accused of High Treason, being denounced, it is said by Thomas Cadere of Prendergast. He was condemned to death, but Elizabeth refused to sign the death warrant as she knew he was innocent and resolved to pardon him, but before the warrant was signed he died in the Tower of London and was buried in St. Peters Church there.

His portrait, which hangs in the Shire Hall, Haverfordwest, and presented to the County by Sir Charles E. G. Philipps, Bart., of Picton Castle, is a copy of the original painting in the possession of Sir John Pakington, Bart., of Twickenham and formerly of Westwood, Worcestershire, a direct descendant of Sir John Pakington, Bart., who married Hester, the inheritrix of Sir Herbert Perrot of Haroldston, in 1700.

In 1727 Richard Rawlinson, LL.D., F.R.S., St. Johns College, Oxford, received from Ireland the original manuscript of  "The Life, Deedes and Death of Sir John Perrot" which he published in London the following year, and which has been authenticated as having been written by an unknown author about the latter end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

It is from this book that the following details of Sir Johns character have been extracted.

"Sir John Perrot was a man in stature very tall and big, exceeding the ordinary stature of man by much, and almost equal to the mightiest men that lived in his time. His body was very compact and proportional through all its parts. As he did exceed most men in stature so did he in strength of body. His hair was auburn until it grew grey in his elder years, his countenance full of majesty his eye marvelous piercing and carrying a commanding aspect. In time of danger he showed himself resolute and valiant. He had a very sharp wit, and was (as may be said) naturally wise, for though he was not learned in the sciences yet would he give as good a reason for matters of Experiment as most men. He had in him many excellent parts, as Magnanimity, Valour, Ripeness of Judgement, Understanding of the Languages as the French, Spanish, the Italian, and in fact, matters that a man not professing Learning could comprehend; he had some defects else had he not been flesh and blood. He would swear too much which proceeding from custom and partly from choler, he could hardly refrain when provoked."

The Rev James Phillips (1847-1907) in his  "History of Pembrokeshire gives the following vivid and striking estimate of his character:

"He was a true son of Henry VIII. If he reproduced in an exaggerated form the faults and vices which stained his father's character without the genuine refinement and culture which half concealed them from the King's contemporaries, he also inherited those qualities that enabled the masterful Tudor to retain in so large a measure, the confidence and loyal admiration of his people.

Most significant is the admission of his bitter enemy that he was "friended" as well as feared.

Unclean of lip and life, unscrupulous in his greed ungovernable in his passions, cruel in his resentment, he was yet loved quite as much as he was hated.

Patriotic and loyal to the hearts core, and sincere in his attachment to the Protestant Faith, he might have taken a high place among the statesmen of Elizabeth's reign if it had not been for the violence of his temper and the foulness of his morals and his speech. The Queen entertained a high opinion of his abilities.

He had been one of the wealthiest subjects of the Crown, but the extravagance of his habits, the expensive vices in which he indulged, the number of his retainers and his princely liberality, left him little margin of income over expenditures.

Sir John had a great love for Haverfordwest and he always took a prominent part in its administration. He was Mayor three times and in 1588 was its Member of Parliament. During his lifetime the town attained great prosperity. It contained many men of enterprise and foresight, and the Queens Surveyor described it,  "The best buylt, the most civill and quickest occupied towne in South Wales". George Owen of Henllys, Lord of Kemes, our first illustrious County Historian, stated that  "Haverfordwest is a good towne, wealthie and well governed". With its seven guilds and the many productive activities in the town many merchants built up a lucrative and foreign trade, and in this Sir John was intimately interested.

It is therefore not surprising that being so engrossed in the towns prosperity and future development he should endow the town with a princely gift the benefits from which it still happily enjoys.

As will be seen from the GRANT dated 20th September, 1580, he directed that the rents and profits derived from the messuages, lands and tenements devised therein were to be expended to the improvement of the Town of Haverfordwest, and to the repair of the streets, bridges, walls, conduits of water, and all other dilapidations of Haverfordwest as well as to the rebuilding of the new quay in the town and all other useful works which may be needful or suitable for the improvement of the town.

The original document which is written in Latin inscribed on parchment is in excellent condition and is now displayed on the wall in the Mayors Parlour in the Corporation Offices, Picton Place. And interesting, is Sir John's seal attached.

In May 1899 the Deed was translated by Henry OwenEsq., D.C.L. (Oxon), F.S.A*

1588 - 1613

Acc/to Lewis Dwnn Dep. Herald of Wales.

Listed under Carew is Richard Grafton Esq. he was the son of the printer of Tyndall's New Testement and married 1st Joan Nicholson and 2nd Brichiart daughter of John Cheyne Esq.

Under Carew Castle is  Sir John Carew Knt who married Elizabeth daughter of Thomas Southcote.

Historic Records.

1200c among the Castles and Churches mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis are those of Carew.

1210 June  King John - on his way to Ireland - deprived William de Carew of his house and lands at Karrie.

1211 May 11  William de Carew on payment of a fine had his lands restored.

1213 William de Carew died his heir was a minor  the wardship passed into the hands of  William FitzJohn de Hapetre.

One son of William,  Thomas de Carew became Bishop of St Davids in 1248 and was succeeded in 1256 by his nephew Richard de Carew.

1231 47 not dated Declaration by A(nselm) bishop of St Davids, that he has approved an arrangement whereby Richard of Carreu, Rector of Carreu, withdrew his claim in respect of certain lands on which Richard Melin and his men dwelt, in consideration of Richard Melin granting to him, in the name of the church of Carreu, four acres next the churchyard.   PRO., Ancient Deeds, Kings Remembrancer  D 3586 2,2

1293 Inventory of the Goods of the Bishop of St Davids.

KAIRU (Carew, Pembs.)

2 stacks of wheat estimated at 90 cribs worth 15 15s 0d at 3s. 6d. per crib

 20 cribs of peas worth 40s. at 2s. per crib.

70 cribs of barley worth 9.1, at 2s. 9d. per crib.

4 cribs of oats worth 18s. at 4s. per crib.

        Total 29 5s  6d

1324 August 20 Pembroke

C Edward II File 85

Extent made before John de Hamptona, Kings escheator, at Pembroke 20 August 1324 Jurors  Walter Maeleufaut, Walter de Castro, John Keiez (Kneghey) John Melin, Walter Harald; Stephen Perot, Walter Eliot; Wioti de Laureny, John Cradok (John de Luny) William de Crippynes, Thomas Martin, and John Scorlags.

[as per C Edward II file 84 plus following]

Aymer had in the county of Pembroch 25 1/2 knights fees and one tenth knights fee, whereof:

Caru, 5 knights fees held by John de Carru, worth yearly,  100m.

1326 Acc/to the Black Book of St David's.

The tenants of the Bishop at Lamphey as part of their services had the following duties:

Item  they ought to carry the material for the houses and mills at their own cost from Loydarth, Lawhaden, Tenby, Pembroke, Carrew, and Slebeech to Llantefey, and the value of this joint service is, according to its, true value,    6s  8d.

And they ought to load the waggons and carts of the Lord going for wine to Tenby, Pembroke and Carrew, and convey the same safe to the Lord s cellar at their own cost in addition to the stallage.

1328   1329

m 12d. View  of the Account of John Cauntrel and Geoffrey Torytoun, reeves of Pembroke from Michaelmas 1328 to Michaelmas 1329.

yearly  toll of the horses of Careu;    3s

1331 m49

Originalia Roll 3 Edward III m 49 County of Pembroke in South Wales.

The township of Carrew for the chattels of William de Carrew, parson of the church of Carrew, a fugitive,     40s.

This schedule was delivered at the Exchequer personally by William Casse, one of the Justices mentioned above.

1331 Dec 8 Clarendon.

Patent Roll 5 Edward III pt 3 m IId, (Cal p 236).

Commissions to Gilbert Talbot, Thomas de Chadesworth and Richard Simon; on information that certain persons have carried away from the castle of Manerbire, Penaly and Carru the goods of Richard Barri, Thomas de Carru and William de Carru, and have forcibly possessed themselves of the lands of these same men, which were lately seized into the king's hands by the steward of the county of Pembroke.

1348 September 2 Westminster.

I.P.M. Edward III, files 91 and 92 Lawrence de Hastynges

 tolls of horses in the barony of Careu and in Castle Martin, 6s yearly

1348 September 24   Pembroke

Writ of certiorari de feodis etc., to John de Shol, escheator in Hereford and the adjacent March of Wales, 24 September, 22

Laurence de Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, had in the county of Pembroke 251/2 knights fees and three carucates of land, viz;

Carreu 5 fees held by John de Carreu, worth yearly 100m

Coydrath  one tenth fee held by William son of Thomas of Carreu, John Maleufaut, John Perot, worth yearly 13s 6d

1358 May 10

Writ 10 May 32 Edward III, to Henry de Prestewode, escheater in co. Hereford and the adjacent marches of Wales, directing him to enquire of what liberties belonging to the earldom and lordship of Pembroke, the said earl was seised, and who has occupied the same since his death.(Laurnce de Hastings died 30 Aug 1348)

Inquisition made at Pembroke, Thursday the feast of St Petronilla, 32 Edward III (31 May 1358).

Carruw The suit of John de Carruw for his lordship of Carruw and all the other liberties aforenamed, as pertaining to the said county.

1375 April 21 Westminster  Patent Roll 49 Edward III pt 1 m6 (Cal p 124)

Commission to John Joos  "chivaler", Hugh Brumhull, parson of the church of Carru, and Thomas Castel, to be the king s attorneys, to receive seisin in his name from Walter Amyas, John Abraham, John Doune, John Prat, and Ralph de Walsham of the castle and county of Pembroke, the castles and lordships of Tynby and Kylgarren and the commote of Oystrelowe in Wales, to hold until the end of the term contained in certain charters indented, with remainder in tail to John, son and heir of John de Hastynges late earl of Pembroke, and reversion to the king and his heirs.

1376 August 24 Blatherwick Close Roll 49 Edward III m 23d (Cal p 248 ).

Witnesses: William Bishop of Winchester, Master Adam de Houton bishop of St David s, Sir William Latymer the chamberlain, Sir John de Neville steward of the household, Sir John Knyvet the chancellor, Sir Richard Lescrofte the treasurer, Sir Nicholas Carreu keeper of the privy seal, Sir John de Cavendish the chief justice, Sir Robert Bealknap chief justice of the Common Bench, Sir William Tauk chief baron of the exchequer. Dated Westminster 21 April 49 Edward III.

1376 20 November I.P.M., Edward III,  248,  f. 105

5 knight's fees in Carrewe,  held by John de Carrewe,  worth  25 yearly; besides reprisals;  one tenth of a knight's fee in Coytrath which William,  son of Thomas of Carrew,  John Malefaunt,  and John Perot formerly held and worth etc 10s.

1401  PATENT ROLL, 3 Henry 1V, pt. I,m. 26d. (Cal., p. 66).

Commission to Thomas Carrewe, chivaler , and John Michel, serjeant-at-arms, to arrest David Perot of the county of Pembroke, esquire, and bring him before the king and council and to seize all his goods and any armour in his custody.

1403  16 June  PATENT ROLL 4 Henry IV pt 2  m 19d  ( Cal p280)

Commission of array in the county of Pembroke and the lordships and county of Rous to Thomas, Earl of Worcester Thomas, baron of Carrew, John Organ, John Joce, William Malelefaunt, Thomas .Roche, Richard Wiriot, John Eynor, and Thomas Rede, on information that Owen Glyndourdy and othel rebelsof those parts for want of victuals intend to come suddenly with no small posse to the marches of the county to seek victuals and waste the county.

1403 November 2

Guy etc. to Master John Kermerdyn licenciate in laws, our official, greeting etc. Sir Thomas Carreu, knight, has presented to us Sir William Webber, chaplain, to the parish church of Carreu, vacant and belonging to his presentation, as he says.

1404 February 28/29th London

Also on the last day of the month of February,in the year and place abovesaid, the bishop admitted Sir William John, chaplain, to the perpetual vicarage of the parish church of CARREU, of his diocese, vacant by the free resignation of Sir John Bole, last vicar there, as appears by a public instrument made upon the said resignation, at the presentation of Sir William Webber, rector of the parish church of Carreu beforesaid.

1407 February

Guy, etc., to John, prior of the priory of St.Thomas the Martyr, Haverford, greeting, etc.

Order, - Although all and singular who hinder or disturb, cause others to hinder or disturb, or ratify these things done in their name, any persons whatsoever holding ecclesiastical benefices and any one of them from being able to dispose freely in respect of such their benefices of the tithes, profits, rents, fruits and oblations of the same, or who lightly withdraw, carry away or take away, cause or procure to be withdrawn, carried away or taken away, tithes, fruits, rents, profits and oblations, beyond and contrary to the will of rectors and vicars and other ecclesiastics, or ratify such withdrawal, carrying away and taking away, done in their name, are in the constitutions of the holy father, in the condemnation of the sentenced the greater excommunication, nevertheless some sons of iniquity, satellites of Satans unmindful of their own salvation, have hindered and disturbed and still disturb Master John Cole, rector or warden of the free chapel of Ogiston, from being able to dispose freely in respect of his said chapel of the tithes, profits, fruits, rents and oblations of the same free chapel, as of right he should, and have ratified and still ratify such impediment and disturbance done in their name; and such his tithes, fruits, rents, profits and oblations, beyond and against his will, they have withdrawn, carried and taken away, caused or procured to be withdrawn, carried and taken away, and have ratified the withdrawal, carrying and taking away, done in their name, and still illegally detain such tithes etc. withdrawn, carried away and taken away, incurring the condemnation of the said sentence of the greater excommunication under which they still remain to the grave peril of the souls of themselves and of others Willing to have dealings with the same, and the great prejudice of the said Master John and his chapel aforesaid. Wherefore we commit unto [and] firmly enjoining in virtue of obedience and under pain of the greater excommunication command you that you solemnly pronounce in your churches during the solemnization of mass when the number of people present is largest, with ringing of bells, with the cross Uplifted, with candles lighted and thrown to the ground for their Condemnation, and the other solemnity usual in such denunciation, you denounce all and singular such malefactors as having been so excommunicated generally, and as being excommunicated, not ceasing from such denunciation until you have other mandate from us. Dated on the day and in the year and place abovesaid.

And like mandates went out to the rector and the vicar of Carrew; the rector and the vicar of Manerbeere; and the rector of St. Giles; and to all curates of the same deaneries.

1447    Nicholas de Carew held lands in Angle of Edward deShirburn, "by military service and suit of Edwards Court at Nangle".

1482  10 October

On 10 October at Monkton by Pembroke in the year as above  R. (Richard Martyn ). Bishop of St David's beforesaid collated to one Peter David the perpetual vicarage of the church of the blessed Mary Cairiw, vacant and in his collation by lapse etc. And he had letters etc.

1482  5 Nov

On the fifth day of the month aforesaid, at Llanafan-fawr, the vicarage of the parish church of Carew vacant by the resignation of Sir John Watkyn last vicar there  and in the said reverend father's collation, was collated to Sir David Veynor.

1486 June 2

On June 2 in the same year, in the manor of Lantfey, one Sir Thomas Williams , chaplain was admitted to the perpetual vicarage of the parish church of the Blessed Mary Cairiw, vacant by the death of the Sir Peter Toker last vicar there, on the presentation of master Hugh Raglan rector of the said church. And he had letters in the usual form.

1488  12 February

Henry etc. to H. bishop of St. David's, greeting:

we command you that you do not for any liberty omit to enter and cause to be levied for us of goods, benefices, and ecclesiastical possessions, of the underwritten churches in your diocese the sums written by parcels below, namely,  -- of the church of Carew, 6.

1491 13 May

On 13 May etc. lord Hugh etc. admitted Sir Lewis Tailour, chaplain, to the vicarage of the parish church of Carew vacant by the death of Sir Thomas  last vicar there; and he was canonically instituted in the same etc.  And it was written to the archdeacon of St David's or his official touching his induction. He is presented to this vicarage by Master Hugh Raglan  rector there, the patron.

Lewis Tailor was  appointed acolyte February 1487, deacon March 1487, priest April 1487, 1491 was instituted as Vicar of Carew and resigned in 1492.

1492  5  January   Llamphey

On 5 January in the year and place aforesaid Sir John Tasker, chaplain, was admitted to and instituted according to the form etc. in the parish church of St Mary,  Carew, then vacant by the resignation  of Sir Lewis Tailour last vicar there and in the gift of Master Hugh Raglan rector there.

1493 20 October

On 20 October etc. he admitted Master John Barret, chaplain, to the church of St. Mary, Carew, and instituted him rector and invested him in the same then vacant by the death of Master Hugh Raglan last rector there and in the gift of Richard Nywton, esquire, patron of the said church for this turn by reason of the advowson sufficiently granted and delivered to him in this behalf for a single turn by Edmund baron of Carew.

1517 there was a tax on the churches levied for the king for the preservation and defence of the famous realm and for other considerations of two tenths Carew was one of those exempt.

1527 Rhys ap Thomas died at Carew  [ when his descendant Lord Dynevor repaired the tomb in 1865 there was found in it the skeletons of Rhys and his second wife Janet widow of Thomas Stradling.  One of his natural daughters Margaret married Henry Wirriott of Orielton,  High Sheriff in 1548;  their son George had a son who died young and an only daughter who married  Sir Hugh Owen of Bodowen,  Anglesey.

1528  Sir Rhys ap Griffiths of Carew Castle complained to Cardinal Wolsey that 20,000 Irish  "raskells" had landed in Pembrokeshire.

1531 Henry VIII granted the governorship of Carew Castle to his natural son Sir John Perrott of Haroldson and Jestynton by Mary Berkley wife of Sir Thomas Perrot of Haroldson. He owned many manors on the south side of the Haven among which where Pennar,  East and West Popton and  "Halle Place in Nangle"  he died in the Tower in 1592 and had been Governer  Deputy for Ireland in 1583 - 8.

1532. M1SC. BOOK NO. 151, ff. 31-3.

Seisin of the lands, etc., of Rice ap Griffith, attained in the county of Pembroke. The dates and places at which seisin and possession were taken to the use of the king by Maurice ap Henry, John Smith and  William Brabazan, the royal commissioners appointed for this purpose.

County of Pembroke.

Town of Pembroke - in a tenement in High Street, 21 January, 23 Henry Vlll (1532), possession was taken of all castles, lordships, lands, rents, and of any other possession whatsoever in the aforesaid county, lately belonging to Rees ap Griffith, in the presence of many there.

Old Carewe. - in the castle there 21 January, 1532, Possession taken of all lands, etc.

1534    In the rural deanery of Pembroke there were 41 parishes all told. Within this deanery were some of the best benefices in the county:  Carew (43), Tenby (26) and Narberth (25). In all there were 12 parishes worth more than 10 pounds a year. Of these only two had a resident parson in 1534,  and they were two of the least valuable - Begelly (12)  and Bosheston (11).

1601    Robert Earl of Essex became a favourite of Elizabeth I and she bestowed Carew Castle on him but later fell in disgrace and was beheaded in 1601 on Tower Hill.

1689    William Lewis High Sheriff is described as of Carew castle - presumably he was a tenant.

1762    George Hair of Carew along with five others had to answer charges at the great sessions for Pembrokeshire for stealing from the sloop "Two Partners" wrecked in Lydstep Bay.

1803 Aug 17 Haverfordwest    Robert B Prust Clerk of the General Meeting to John Colby Esq. at Finone.

At a general meeting of the lieutenancy of the county of Pembroke held at Haverfordwest the 15 instant, it was ordered that application be made to Lord Milford to have beacons erected on Presseli, Frenin Fawr, Carew Beacon and Roch castle.

(Owen and Colby MS 2181).

1834 The Topographical Dictionary of Wales    S Lewis.

CAREW, a parish in the hundred of NARBERTH, county of PEMBROKE, 5 miles E by N. from Pembroke, on the road from Narberth, containing 1020 inhabitants. This parish probably derives its name, which was perhaps originally Caerau, from several ancient British fortifications, upon the site of some of which a magnificent castle in the Norman style was erected by Gerald de Windsor, lieutenant to Ralph de Montgomery, and who on the subsequent disgrace of that baron, was appointed by Henry I. castellan of Pembroke. Gerald married Nest, daughter of Rhys ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales, with whom, among other manors, he obtained that of Carew, on which he built a strong and superb castle, coequally adapted to the purposes of a military fortress and a splendid baronial residence.

Before Gerald was well fixed in his new palace, it was attacked by Owain, the son of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, who, being informed of the surpassing beauty of Nest, at a banquet given by Caedwgan, at the castle of Aberteivy, or, as some think, at that of Eare Weare, in the parish of Amroath, became enamoured of her, and assaulting the castle at night, with a party of his adherents, carried her off by force.

This celebrated structure, of which the ruins plainly indicate its pristine grandeur, descended to William, the son of Gerald, who first assumed the name of Carew, probably corrupted from Caerau, and continued for several generations in his family till the reign of Henry VII when Sir Edward Carew mortgaged the estate to Sir Rhys ab Thomas, who, it is generally believed added the noble suite of state apartments on the north east and made it his residence during the latter period of his life. Sir Rhys being a knight of the most noble order of the garter, and unable from age and infirmity to attend his sovereign in London, on the celebration of St. Georges day kept that festival with princely magnificence at his castle of Carew, upon which occasion he entertained with sumptuous hospitality six hundred of the principal nobility and gentry of the surrounding country, whom he feasted for a whole week, and diverted with jousts, tournaments, and other exercises of chivalry.

On the attainder of Grufydd ab Rhys, son of the above nobleman, in the reign of Henry VIII., the estate was leased for a term of years to Sir Andrew Perrot and others, from whom the remainder of the term was subsequently purchased by  Sir John Carew, lineal descendant of Sir Edward Carew, to whom the whole was granted in fee by Charles I.

Thomas Carew Esq., great grandson of Sir John, dying in 1760, without male issue, the estate was divided between his two daughters and coheiresses, and is now the property of John Warrington Carew, Esq., of Crocombe Court, in the county of Somerset.

The castle  was erected on a peninsular promontory of inconsiderable elevation, in the southern branch of Upton creek in Milford Haven, and occupies a quadrangular area of considerable extent, defended at the angles with massive circular towers: the more ancient part, built in the reign of William Rufus is in the Norman style of architecture, and the splendid range of state apartments, on the north-east, is in the most elaborate and finished style of the later English. The ruins are extensive, and may be regarded as among the most interesting and beautiful in the principality: the walls of several of the noble apartments and of the chapel are still remaining and are replete with elegant detail; the former consisted of a noble range, two stories in height,  lighted by lofty square-headed windows of elegant design, and enriched with beautiful tracery and the exterior of the front was decorated with two lofty and spacious oriel windows From the towers, to the summits of which an ascent is afforded by staircases in a dilapidated condition, an extensive and pleasing prospect is obtained of the haven, on one side, and of the surrounding country on the other, which abounds with interesting scenery, enlivened by humorous seats in the vicinity. Within the parish are several gentlemen s seats, of which the principal are, Milton House, formerly part of the extensive estate belonging to Upton castle., and now the property and residence of William Bowen, Esq., an elegant modern mansion, pleasantly situated within grounds tastefully laid out, and comprehending some interesting and diversified scenery;  Freestone Hall, the residence of J. Allen, Esq., commanding from the grounds some of the finest views in the county, embracing Lawrenny and its fine estuary, Clareston, and the hundred of Rhos, to the west; and south Wilsdon a substantial modern houses the seat of George Donne, Esq. This last was erected on the site of an ancient family mansion, in which Oliver Cromwell took up his quarters, while besieging the castle of Pembroke: during his abode here, he was confined to his bed by  an attack of the gout, and, in writing a dispatch to the parliament, is said to have spilled some ink upon the a coverlid, which is still preserved in the family. The parish contains a vast quantity of excellent limestone, which is conveyed in small craft of twelve or fifteen tons burden to the upper parts of this county and of Cardiganshire. Coal of inferior quality is procured on the north side of the parish but only for the supply of  the immediate neighbourhood.

The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of St. David's, not rated in the King's books, endowed with 200 private benefaction 400 royal bounty, and 800 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is a spacious and venerable structure, in the early style of English  architecture with a lofty square embattled tower, comprising a nave and aisles, a chancel, and a north transept; the floor is paved with bricks, several of which bear curious inscriptions. In the north transept, which was the sepulchral chapel of the owners of the castle, is an altar-tomb, on which are the recumbent effigies of Sir John Carew and his lady, with the date 1637 and in the south aisle are the effigies of a crusader and a priest, but without either date or inscription. In the churchyard is an ancient building, apparently coeval with the church, which is occasionally used as a parochial school, the master being appointed by the vicar. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyan Methodists. Near the turnpike gate is a perfect cross, of that kind usually called St. Catherine's of which the circular head is fixed into a tall shaft, ornamented with scrolls and tracery, rising from a substantial pedestal; in one of the compartments into which the shaft is divided there is an illegible inscription.

The average annual expenditure for the maintenance of the poor amounts to 406. 13.

1838

According to the Tithe Survey under the Commutation of Tithes Act 1836.

The land utilisation was:

Arable land                                                      1,568 acres

Pasture land                                                     3,253acres

Cottages and Homes                                            50 acres

Woodland                                                            22 acres

Roads and waste land                                       173 acres

Vicarial and Rectorial Glebe                             35 acres

The Landowners and tenants were

George Henry Carew  owned 1304 acres covering parts of the whole parish. He was not resident.

His Tenants were

James Allen

George Allen

George Bevan

George Bowen

John Codd

John Copp

James Edwards

Elizabeth Griffiths

John Harries

Thomas Heir

Thomas John

Richard Llewellin

George Llewellin

Sarah Llewellin

Mrs morgan

Henry Nutting

William Richards

John Rowe

Rebecca Rogers

William Shear

Isaac Vaughan

Martha Rowe

James Macken

James Rogers

Thomas Davies

John  Beynon

John Gwyther

Margaret Allen

Hugh Lloyd

Michael Llewellin

Esther Rogers

Benjamin John

Richard Rowe

Thomas Moody

Thomas Griffiths.

Edward Laws owned 1167 acres in parts of the whole parish. He was not resident.

His tenants were

Mrs Mary Davies

Isaac Eynon

Elizabeth Griffiths

John Griffiths

Elizabeth Hooke

George Knight

William Morris

William Ormond

Mary Palmer

John Priest

Henry Phillips

John Phillips

Thomas Roberts

Thomas Rowe

John Rowe

John Prickett

James Stratton

John Sinnett

John Thomas

William Morris

William Lewis

John Hensleigh Allen owned 819 acres mainly located at Cresswell and Llandigwynett. He resided in the parish.

His Tenants were:

Martha Arthur

George Bowen

John Codd

Thomas Davies

Thomas Evans

Mrs Anne Ormond

Thomas Ormond

Mrs Elizabeth Palmer

James Picton

James Smith

Richard Thomas

Mrs Wilson

Benjamin Davies

Benjamin Hitchings

James Parcil

John Harcourt Powell owned 536 acres mainly at  Carew Newton. he was non resident.

His tenants were:

Thomas Adams

Robert Brinn

Thomas Griffiths

Hugh Lloyd

John Lewis

William Morris

Anne Ormond

James Rees

Thomas Ormond

John Rowe

James Teague

Mrs Martha Phelps owned 227 acres around Stephen's Green and was resident.

She had no tenants

William Ormond owned 210 acres around Cardeeth and was resident.

He had one tenant

Hugh Edwards

William Bowen owned 207 acres around Milton and was resident.

His Tenants were:

Mrs Mary Davies

Thomas Thomas

Jeremiah Lear owned 192 acres at Poyerston and was not resident.

His tenant was:

George Dunn

Rev F George Leach owned 190 acres at Ford and was not resident.

His Tenant was

John Morgan

George Dunn owned 175 acres at Welston and was resident.

He had no tenants

Mrs Lettie Llewellin owned 73 acres at Carew Newton and was resident.

Her Tenant was

Thomas Adams

George Llewellin owned 72 acres at Williamston and was resident.

His Tenants were

William Lewis

John Phillips

Thomas Griffiths

Lord Bishop of St Davids owned the rectorial glebe and parsonage although non resident.

The Tenant was

Jane Francis

Rev William Paynter Evans Owned 8 acres at Milton and was non resident.

His Tenant was:

William Rogers

Rev Gustavus L Hamilton ( vicar) owned 6 acres (vicarial glebe) and was resident . He had no tenant.

The Tithe map also shows that there was :-

a road from Dairy Hays (Carew Cheriton) and Summerton.

Upper Lane parallel to Lower lane between Williamston and Carew Newton.

Between New Shipping Farm to Carew Bridge and Crickchurch Ford.

Population.

1563 Number of Households 70

1670 Number of households on Hearth Tax  104

1801 census number of families  183

1831 1020 total  520 m 500f  189 inhabited houses

1841 1056 total  497m  559f   230 inhabited houses.

Education.

It is believed that the  chapel in the churchyard was used as a school from 1625 until a new school was built in 1872.There is a record that there was a school in the parish in 1837 as the Tithe Apportionment meeting was held in the Schoolroom on the 20th October 1837. The building was the Chapel within the Churchyard.

State of Education in Wales 1847.

PARISH OF CAREW. "National School". An old chapel, erected in the churchyard, is the school-room. It is in Good repair, except the floor. There  is a way to it without going through the churchyard. It wants more light. The school is in great measure supported by the Vicar and the nieghbouring proprietors. The scholars pence are paid weekly in advance. The furniture consisted of the master's desk, five desks for the scholars, 11 benches, a large map of the ovoid published by Varty, and a black board. The scholars are composed of 10 farmers , and the rest labourers children. Very correct accounts of the scholars are kept. The school was closed for the Christmas holidays. The master, whom I saw at the School room, appeared to be an intelligent young man. He writes a superior hand as did many of  his scholars, judging from their copy-books.

The Reverend John Phelps, Vicar of Carew; informed me that the parish is mostly agricultural. Seven-tenths of the working-men are employed in that pursuit, and the other three-tenths in the quarries and in working barges. Labourers on their own finding get from 7s. to 8s. a-week; and 10d. a-day with food; farm-servants from 5. to 12 and female servants from 50s. to 4. The poor of the parish, or from any adjoining parish, obtain education at the rate of ld. per week, on condition of complying with the rules of the school; viz., to learn the Church catechism and attend divine Service in the Church. The farmers in this parish arose of a superior grade, and are able to read and write well, and maintain parish affairs efficiently.

The moral character of the people here is good, being quiet and sober, excepting some of the quarrymen, who are sometimes guilty of excesses in drinking. Few others ever frequent public  houses. Many adults may be ignorant, but the rising generation has the means of obtaining  instruction at a low rate. December 23rd, 1846. WM. MORRIS.

Mr. Kendry's School. This small school is kept in the master's dwelling-house, which is a very dilapidated state, almost falling down. The furniture for the use of the school consists only of two benches. There were in the room also a bed, a coffer, an old chest, and two or three old boxes. The master was a limestone quarryman until he met with an accident. His receipts from the school are trifling. He has 1s. a week from the parish.  He could read tolerably well.

The first scholars he had are labourers children, seemingly of the very poor. He does not profess to teach anything except reading. A part of the 5th chapter of Acts was read. They could answer no questions from the chapter. To general questions proposed by me they said that Christ was born in Bethlehem, was crucified by the Jews, was buried, did not know where, is now in heaven, will come again to judge the world. Carew Newton is in the county of Pembroke. One said there were six, and another that there is eight days in a week, twelve months in a year, Christmas is tomorrow.

Dec  24th, 1846.  WM. MORRIS.

(They were right because the inspection was on Christmas eve).

MILTON

In 1541-2 Richard Gwyther was lessee of the fulling-mill at Milton for 26s 8d The mill is shown at the same value in the list of kings mills in 1608.

(Cal. Pub Records relating lo Pembrokeshire, III 181; Cat. of MSS relating to Wales in the British Museum, I 78)

The grid number refers to Milton township. There is a sixteenth-century water. mill, operating tidally on the Carew estuary, close by Milton (SN 041038;). Arch. Camb., 126 (1977), 171.

Milton waterworks, built in 1898 to pump water from Milton springs to supply the nearby towns of Pembroke and Pembroke Dock.  It was built on the site of an early mill. The village pump was restored by local people and the Carew Wesley Youth Group. Nearby ,linked by a short straight sided Canal  to  Radford  Pill There is an old stone quarry where during the I9c the blue grey Carboniferous Limestone was extensively quarried for use as building stone and the production of lime for agricultural  use.

Carn Meini

This was the site from which the  "Blue Stones" were quarried and transported to Stonehenge.

Carreg Samson        846334

Acc/to Wales before 1066 by Donald Gregory.

Carreg Samson in the parish of Mathry lying 7 miles to the SW of Fishguard, near Abercastle.

Today all that remains of a long barrow, which originally was probably covered by stones rather than by grass, are seven upright stones roofed by a capstone. Inland along this coast another ten similar neolithic sites may be found.

Carreg Wastad      927406

Here is to be found the commemorative memorial to mark site of the last invasion of Britain in 1797. When a French force commanded by General Tate landed and where forced to surrender by a much smaller force of Militia. The Battle Honour of  "Fishguard" was awarded to the Militia Forces that took part.

Carswell

The site of a Miniature Tower House equipped with fireplace and chimney - upper floor supported by stone barrel vaulted under croft.

Castell Coch

Castell Coch is close to Canaston Bridge - Cross Hands road.

Acc to Medieval Buildings - published by Preseli District Council  - it is a stone shell of a small moated mansion, with an adjacent fish pond just discernable dating probably from the late 14c.

Castellan

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales 1849.

 CASTELLAN, a chapelry, in the parish of Penrith, union of Newcastle-Emlyn, hundred of Kilgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Cardigan; containing 141 inhabitants. It forms an extensive portion of the parish, and is situated at the northern foot of the Vrenni-Vawr mountain, the second in height in the county. The chapel is in ruins, but the incumbent of the parish receives an annual payment of a guinea from Lord Milford, the impropriator. There is a small place of worship for Baptists, on the borders of this chapelry and the parish of Llanvihangel Penbedw.

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter  (1994).

Not much of this building stands above the foundations.

Castle Flemish        007267

Tiny Roman camp on the acknowledged Roman Road going towards  "villa" at Wolfs Castle and on to St David's. Positively identified by Sir Mortimer Wheeler as Roman 1st century in the 1920s after he partly excavated the site.

Castlebythe    (Castle-Bigh/Castle-Beith). (Castle-Bigh/Castle-Beith).

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales - S Lewis 1849.

CASTLE-BIGH (CASTLE-BEITH), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 266 inhabitants. The parish occupies some high ground, near the source of a tributary of the Western Cleddau river. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at 6, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the church is dedicated to St. Michael.

On the border of the parish are the remains of a Roman encampment, through which runs the high road separating the parishes of CastleBigh and Ambleston, and which is  described in the account of the latter place. There is another encampment near the church, fortified with double ramparts, and occupying about four acres of ground. A house in the parish, called  "Poll-Tax Inn" received its name from having been the place where that tax was collected.

The Church consists of a chancel, nave and double bell-cote above the west gable. It was practically rebuilt on the old foundations in the year 1875. Some of the steps to the roodloft remain; also a small piscina and aumbry.

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter  (1994).

The plain pointed chancel arch dates from c1200. The chancel was later widened southwards and given a recess on that side. There was much rebuilding in 1875 but the building is now derelict.

Acc/to  Pembrokeshire Parsons.

This living is a rectory, formerly in the patronage of the Perrot family of Haroldston, near Haverfordwest, being an appendage of their manor of Castlebigh, but now in the gift of the Crown.

Under the name of Castro Pulch, this church was assessed in 1291 at 6 13s. 4d. - Taxatio.

Ecclesia ibidem ex collacione Johannis Parrot armigeri, domini hujus manerii, unde Johannes Arnold, clericus, est rector valet communibus annis clare 6. Inde decima 2s. - Valor Eccl. Castlebythe 23, 40 King's Books, 6. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

RCAM Pembroke 1914 No 136.

Castlemartin        915983

An earthwork and cluster of houses not far from the great bay of Freshwater West. The roundabout in the middle of the village was the old cattle pound one of only two left in Britain the five roads meeting at the pound the one leading in the direction of Linney Head bay is still called Bull Street; then, as now, it led from the Castell to Bluck"s Pwll, under Linney Head. The south portion  of the parish in now part of the Castlemartin Tank range and is not normally accessable.

There is evidence of Middle Stone age flint "factory".

Members of the family of de Castro Martini took part in the Irish Invasion under Henry II. and Strongbow, and some remained and settled there, founding families; in later times the daughter of an Irishman, Sir Nicholas de Castlemartin, married Sir Richard Wellesley, an ancestor of the Dukes of Wellington.

The church, down a lane to the north, has a battlemented tower, and used to have an  organ that is alleged to have once belonged Mendelssohn.

On the eastern side of the churchyard is a ruined building called  "The Old Rectory".

The parish gave its name to a famous breed of cattle, the long-horned Castlemartin Blacks. In 1874 they had their own herd book but are know merged with the Welsh Blacks.

Castlemartin was an exceedingly rich and valuable corn-growing district.

RCAM

Brownslade Barrows.

A tract of sand burrows and sand-blown shorelands leading westward to Frainslake Sands and the sea. Here from time to time traces of prehistoric man have been found. The collection which was at Brownslade House comprised flint arrowheads, some with barbs. In the Tenby Museum are two small unfinished celts and a well-formed spindle-whorl of felsite fragments of chert have also been found, neither of these stones being native. In the cabinet of fossels and shells known as the Bryant and Wright collection, brought together in Pembrokeshire and West Wales in the latter part of the 19th cent., and now in the Carmarthenshire Antiq. Society's Museums is a fine specimen of a flint chisel labelled Brownslade concerning which Mr. Reginald A. Smith, F .S.A., has reported  "A  Danish Chisel of the last stage of the Neolithic period, say 2000BC and of a common type in Scandinavia, but this is the first I have heard of from Britain".

Danish flints have occasionally been found near the east coast." There would seem to belittle doubt that the chisel was found at Brownslade, and is unquestionably authentic".

Brownslade Tumulus.

This is a much-disturbed sepulchral mound standing in a field called Church-ways belonging to the farm of Brownslade.

It was partially excavated in 1880, when remains of burials of men, women and children where discovered on the south-eastern side, the bodies  " packed in tiers  " of at least three deep With the remains were found  a piece of fine bronze which might have been an ear-ring ,a finger-ring, and a small brass ring with a rude pattern of spots pounced on it and also a small stoup, which is now fixed in the wall of Flimston Chapel. Mixed with the human remains were animal bones, a few limpet shells, and a flint flake.

A little to the north of this find was disinterred a human skeleton, placed on a roughly-prepared clay surface and surrounded by rough dry masonry; with the body was a horse's nipper, some animal bones and sea shells.

 In the course of the reinterment of the human remains in the centre of the mound, a cist burial was discovered about 3 feet below the surface; the bones were much decayed-In the cist there some animal bones, a fragment of wheel-turned pottery, a piece of Chert stone bored for use as a hammer, and a block of red sandstone marked with V shaped lines. In the mound, but perhaps not connected with any of the burials  was a flat piece of limestone bearing a roughly incised cross within a circle

Laws, Little England! beyond Wales, 57-9, ill. 

Finds.

Brownslade Tumulus Finds.

(a) Wheel-turned pottery.

 (b) A piece of fine bronze, possibly the remains of a finger ring.

 (c) A small brass ring.

(d) A socketed pivot-stone, probably that of the door of the closely adjacent ruined chapel; also a roughly hewn stoup since fixed in Flimston Chapel

(e) A piece of chert about the size of half a brick, with a deep hollow on each sidepossibly a cresset stone from the chapel.

(f) A block of red sandstone with indeterminate markings.

(g) A flat piece of limestone with roughly inscribed cross within a circle

With the exception of the stoup all the above are in Tenby Museum.

Flimston Bay Camp.

This earthwork is situated on the verge of the cliffs at the mouth of Milford Haven, and at the boundary between Castlemartin and Warren parishes.

A natural peninsula is cut of by two stony parallel banks, each of about 300 feet in length. The entrances are placed roughly midway, and are directly in line with each other. At the extreme point are traces of a pathway down the cliff.

Linney Head.

This promontory camp is called by Fenton (Tour, 410) the Head of Man but that name is not recognized to-day. It is of the usual character: a strong earthed bank, having a fine outward sweep of about 500 feet in length, is cut across a wild and storm-swept peninsula. The entrance is in the centre of the bank, the ends being strengthened by a good stone facing, which has the original construction. The exterior ditch is much silted up  A zig zag path to the sea at the extreme end of the camp is in good preservation. On the further side of the tiny inlet west of the promontory are slight traces of a bank, probably intended to protect a landing party when the cliff path was not practicable.

Bulliber or Warman's Hill Camp.

This earthwork is placed about 300 yards south-west of Bulliber farm-house.

Continuous cultivation has largely obliterated what was clear in 1880, when the earthwork was reported upon as follows:- 

Protected somewhat by a gully to the south, and gently sloping to the west, but the ground rises slightly to the east and north. The main rampart is mostly about 3 feet above the interior with a 7 feet fall. To the north-west is a terrace, 35 feet wide, Beyond this there are two further banks with a ditch between them. To the east, the  most exposed-side, the defense is complicated; 62 feet in front of the first is a second rampart, the crest of which is 2 feet higher than the first, with a small intermediate bank, 150 feet long, between them, 4 feet lower than the first. And at the same distance in front is a third rampart  3 feet higher than the first, with a 9 foot terrace between it and the counterscarp of the second ditch. Forty-two feet in front again is a fourth rampart 2 feet higher than the first, with a ditch in front. All the ditches are about the uniform level of 3 feet below the ground outside, except the main ditch, which is 5 feet. The southern side, owing to the protection of the gully, is only defended by the rampart and ditch of the inner enclosure. Round the western side up to the entrance there is the inner rampart, with two others in front, with a ditch between the two last, but no outer ditch.

The entrance to the enclosure has been disturbed; its present width is about 20 feet. The dry weeks in May and June, 1922, revealed traces of an approach from the north.

Spindle Whorl.

A small well-turned spindle whorl, found in Bulliber Camp was preserved at Brownslade.

Castle Martin

In the village of Castlemartin, in a field north of the meeting of five roads, is the earthwork noted by Leland as the  "vestigia of Martine Castel." Though much disturbed and somewhat difficult to determine, there can be traced a circular bank, some 230 feet in diameter. It is best seen on the north, where it has a 12-feet fall to a ditch, now considerably effaced or occupied by buildings. The counterscarp of the ditch rises 4 feet to the level. The ditch is unusually wide, from 80 to 90 feet between the crest of the rampart and that of the counterscarp to the north, decreasing to 60 feet on the west. There can be little doubt that these are the remains of a mound castle where the mound has been completely removed, and the bailey has almost vanished.

King's Mill Earthwork

This has been a moated homestead of somewhat irregular shape, enclosing about an acre of ground, having the moat on three sides in fair condition and  still fed from an adjacent stream. The sides measure 180 and 150 feet respectively the north arm of the moat has been filled in. The surrounding rampart has an average rise of  2 feet from the interior level and falls 8 to 10 feet to a ditch. The interior area bears no trace of buildings. Adjoining the site is the farmhouse and mill known as the King's Mill. At the court farm is a stone 18 inches by 15 inches bearing the profile of a crowned head in high relief. It probably adorned the original King's Mill.

The Old Vicarage.

On rising ground in the churchyard are the fragmentary ruins of a small domestic building known  as  "the old vicarage," which was inhabited up to a few years ago. When seen by Professor Freeman in 1852 it consisted of  "an imperfect system of four arches; disposed on trio arcades, on one side against the wall, on the other standing free. The arches are depressed and quite plain and at once call to mind those in the churches of St. Florence and Lawhaden. The arrangement allows of only one pier, which is a column with a shaft of almost classical character, having a decided diminution; but the abacus a square one, is of enormous thickness, with small heads attached at the four corners From the pier a screen seems to have run across to the wall  (Arch. Camb, II iii, 200). The heads on the capital can still be distinguished, and are similar to that on a corbel in the walls of the church chancel.

The Parish Church Ded.   St Michael.

This interesting building consists of chancel (34 feet by 19 feet), nave (51 1/2 feet by 17 feet), north aisle (51 1/2 feet by 14 3/4 feet), south tower (14 feet by 11feet) and south porch (13 feet by 119 feet)- It has undergone various changes at different dates. A chapel to the north of the chancel, a second chapel to the south, and a north transept have disappeared; while the Summit of the tower, which   was originally gabled, has been altered to the flat roof with corbel table and battlements usual in the county (Arch. CambS, 1886, V, iii, 82, ill-)- A west porch opening to the nave was removed in the restoration about half a century ago. The north aisle has a squint to the chancel and an arcade of c1200 with four plain single stepped arches carried on octagonal piers with shafts to the north and south. Two similar blank arches appear in the chancel, which has a blocked south lancet, and it seems that a north chapel and transept have been removed. There was evidently once a south chapel reached by an arch, now blocked, in the east wall of the 13c transeptal south tower. The tower top is of Tudor date and was once gabled. The vaulted porch is surmounted by a saddle-back roofed belfry. The font is Norman.

According to an account in 1834 -- the Church of Castlemartin underwent a thorough rebuilding in 1824-5.

Lychgate - cast iron gates 1890 with texts worked in-by Stephens family, who had an engineering works in East Back Pembroke, but whose roots were in Castlemartin.

The hands of their little boy were used as a mold for the brass handles. The woodwork of the gate was renewed in 1979 as a memorial to the Thomas family of West Farm.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

The Church of St. Michael, Castlemartin, was on 29 June, 1299, granted to John, called "Oysel," the Prior, and to the Monks of St. Nicholas, Pembroke, by Joan de Valence, countess of Pembroke, and mother of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. - Pat. Rolls.

To the same priory William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, granted the tithes of his mill of Pembroke, Tenby, and Castlemartin.

In 1461 the property of Pembroke Priory was granted by the King to the Abbey of St. Albans, and on the dissolution of the latter house, Castle-martin Church came into the hands of the Crown. In 1594 the Queen was patroness. - Owen's Pem.

Under the name, Castro Martini, this church was assessed in 1291 at 26 13s. 4d., the tenths thereon pay-able to the King being 2  13s 4d. - Taxaio.

Vicaria de Castro Martini. - Vicaria ibidem ex col-lacione prioris Pembr" unde Thomas Lange, clericus, est vicarius sine gleba sed percipit in altilegiis communibus annis viij li. In de in sinodalibus et pro cur acionibus quolibet anno ij8 vjd. Et remanet dare 7 17s. 6d. Inde decirna 15s. 9d. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading "Livings Discharged": - Castle Martin V. (St. Michael). Syn and Pro2r. quolibet anno 2s. 6d. Vah in altarag, &c. Prior Pembrok. Propr. John Campbell, Esq., 1720, 1760, 1787 Clear yearly value, 20. King's Books, 7 17s. 6d. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

Flimston Chapel  St Martin.

There is an ancient chapel in this parish, called Flimston Chapel, which was dependent on Castlemartin Church. It had long gone to decay, and in 1800 was devoted to farm purposes. It is thus described in the Arch Cambs for 1880:

Clergy.

Robert              William             1345 Jan29      Castlemartin -vicar

Froyne              Gilbert             1349 July 14    Castlemartin -vicar

Hykedon             John              1390 Jan18      Castlemartin -vicar

Malros              Philip               1390 Sep 12     Castlemartin -vicar

Brown               Thomas           1398 Sep 12     Castlemartin -vicar

Clement             Richard           1405 Apr4       Castlemartin -vicar  

Dole                John                  1470 Nov20      Castlemartin -vicar  

Harry               William             1489                Castlemartin -vicar   

Baker               John                 1489 Nov14      Castlemartin -vicar   

ap Owen             William          1501 Jan 22     Castlemartin -vicar 

Powell              Nicholas           1502 Oct1       Castlemartin -vicar  

Lewis               Thomas             1534                Castlemartin -vicar   

Lange               Thomas             1535-6            Castlemartin-vicar 

Walter              David               1554 Aug 2      Castlemartin -vicar 

Thomas              John                1563               Castlemartin -vicar 

Evans               John                  1563 Oct8       Castlemartin -vicar

Vaughan             Sir John          1563,4,5        Castlemartin##

Butler              John                   1564 Mar28      Castlemartim - vicar deprived of the living 1565 

ap Rice             Thomas            1565 Aug 12     Castlemartin - vicar 

Davies              William             1597            Castlemartin -vicar  

Loveling            Mathew           1671            Castlemartin -vicar

Loveling            William            1672 Sep 23     Castlemartin -vicar  

Loveling            Thomas            1718 Nov5       Castlemartin -vicar  son of William Loveling previous vicar 

Phillips            Jeremiah            1760 Aug 12     Castlemartin -vicar  

Pritchett           Charles Pigott    1782 Oct 8      Castlemartin -vicar

 Jones               David               1814 Mar30      Castlemartin -vicar   

Allen               James                 1839 Sep 10     Castlemartin -vicar   

Wilkinson           Clennell           1872 Dec 6      Castlemartin -vicar 

Puckridge   Jonathan Samual     1888 Nov 18   Castlemartin -vicar

 

Parish Registers  held in the National Library of Wales go back to 1782 although there are bishop's transcripts for 1685-7

Acc/to the returns for the census of Religious buildings in 1851 - the average congregation  was 73 in the morning and 19 in the evening.

Cross-Incised Stone.

During the inspection of this church a stone built into the churchyard wall bearing a cross on both front and back was noticed, apparently for the first time are very rude both in workmanship and in art. The stone was taken out of the wall and removed into the Church,

"Two floors for storing corn have been inserted [in the building]. In the cart-shed beneath, the piscina and sedilia are still to be seen in the south wall. The roof is sharply vaulted, like many churches in the neighbourhood. A small turret remains on the western gable. The stair to the first floor now occupies what may have been a sacristy".

Flimston Chapel was restored in 1902 by Col. and Mrs. Lambton, in memory of their sons who fell in the Boer War.

The building comprises a single chambered nave and chancel (46 1/2 feet by 24 1/4 feet) with a small lean-to chamber on the north side, now used as a vestry The roof is a pointed vault having a span of 18 feet springing from the walls some 15 feet from the ground and rising to a total height of 30 feet. To the left of the north doorway is a square recess, in which has been fixed the stoup found near the ruined chapel in Churchways. The rood corbels are still in situ- At the east end of the south call are sedilia with pointed arches, and a plain credence; a small square cupboard is now filled in, as also is a doorway opposite to the present main entrance. The font is modern.

Of the history of this storm-beaten chapel on Flimston Down little would seem to be recorded. A rent charge on Portfield Gate in the parish of Lambston, near Haverfordwest due to the vicar of Castlemartin, and known to have been charged for the support of the services in Flimston Chapel, is still paid. No record exists of when the services ceased prior to their resumption in recent years.

In the small burial-ground attached to the chapel have been placed several large boulder-stones from the neighbourhood, removed to save them from threatened destruction for road metalling. That at the head of Lady Victoria Lambtons grave was taken from just opposite Flimston Cottage to the south-east of the church, others were brought from Pwllslaughters Bulliber Farm, Lyssery (Llysevery) Farm and Merrion Pond.

Ermigate Cross.

In the east of the parish, by the side of the road leading to Flimston Chapel (No. 148), and north-west of Ermigate farm-house, is the three-tier base of a cross; the field on which it stands is known as Cross Park (Tithe Schedule, No. 308). An adjacent cottage is known as Addlegutter; referring to which name and that of  Ermigate the writer of Flimston Chapel (1914, p. 16) says:  "The assumption is that these names may be corruptions of St. Emingitha and of St. Aethelgifa, either of whom may have made pilgrimages to Pembrokeshire."

Frainslake.

Acc/to Edward Laws.

Col Lampton in 1880 opened a tump in the sand at Freynslake. It was built of sand and stones. In it he found two skeletons in a kistvaen. From one he took the skull leaving the other as it was.  This skull was given to Tenby Museum and was described by Prof. Rolleston as "the beautiful typical brachycephalic skull of a young female". With it  were ox ,pig, sheep or goat bones white water worn pebbles and fragments of well baked black ware.

Longstone.

A field next west to Linney farm-house is so called (Tithe Schedule, No. 437)

Nothing is now remembered of any standing stone here. It was probably used when the adjoining coastguard station was erected.

Churchways Chapel.

This little edifice stood immediately north of the Brownslade tumulus  on one of two fields called Upper and Lower Church Hill (Tithe Schedule, No 376-7). The remains of foundations are now practically buried beneath the sand. When opened up in 1880 the chapel was found to be "very tiny, being only 16 feet by 12 feet and pitched with water-worn stones".

Apostles Park.

A name still locally in use for the field next south of Pricaston farm-house. Of its origin nothing appears to be known (Tithe Schedule, No. 288).

Kings Land; East Kings Land.

Two fields south of Brownslade Farm, the names being still in local use.

Sten Bridge.

This bridge over Castlemartin Corse, doubtless meaning Stone Bridge but called. Stem Bridge on the Ordnance sheets, is situated at the point where this parish meets those of Hundleton and Warren.

This was the western limit of the Lordship of Pembroke by the grant by Henry 1 (Fenton Tour 405)

Quern.

Said (Pem. Arch. Survey ) to be built into the wall covering the over-flow of the Brownslade tank but seems to have disappeared.

Leaden tablet.

With dragonesque ornament found at Castlemartin - believed to be of Scandinavian origin ( in National Museum of Wales).

Hammer Stones.

The Castlernartin floors in South Pembrokeshire have produced the two stones,

One, partly bored slantwise, is, apparently, an unfinished hammer, thrown on one side because the boring had  "gone wrong." The stone is of a green granite, similar  to that found at Porth-gain in the north of the county. It measures 4 3/4 ins. by 3 1/2 ins., and is 2 ins. in thickness. It in in the possession of the Rev. A. S. Jeremiah, Vicar of Castlemartin.

The other, a finished hammer-stone, of a blackish felsite, has been worked with much care and skill. It measures 4  1/4 ins. bv 3 1/2 ins., and is 1 in. in thickness. The centre hole is of the hour-glass pattern. It is at present in the possession of the Writer, but will eventually be deposited in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.

A  G. O. MATHIAS.

Freshwater West.

A magnificent bay in the far west of the Castlemartin Peninsula. Glorious empty sands, massive sand dunes, and fascinating rocky shores to explore

Mesolithic and bronze Age sites.

Traces of submerged forest 6000yrs old occasionally exposed.

Devils Quoit Dolmen about 100yds over a low fence opposite the drive entrance to Broomhill farm on the Angle Rd. About 3 ft. above the ground - enormous capstone supported one side by two uprights - otherside third upright has collapsed.

 Restored seaweed collectors hut -- once used for drying the seaweed used to make laver bread..

Frainslake Sands,

In the south, lies within the Army firing range and is out of bounds. Close to the road you can see a restored seaweed collector hut - once used for drying the special seaweed destined to become laver bread.

Historic Houses.

Pricaston.

Inaccessible -- (on Castlemartin Tank range) -- Fine group of buildings -- core a great hall with a stone built three door passage partition at one end  The earliest record on the house is in 1475 although there is records of a John and Matilda Prikker holding land in Castlemartin  in 1325.

Bowood.

Name and site lost. A pedigree shows descendants of John Warren of Trewern (1485 - 60 living at Bristol and at Bowood in Castlemartin, and were still at both places in 1638 Mathew Warren at the former and John Warren at  the latter (could this be the farm known as Boughwood in 1660 in the parish of Monkton  Castlemartin Hundred,  and held then by Captain Francis Meyricke who had difficulty in paying the rent.).

Brownslade.

"About half a mile south of Castlemartin village, and westwards from the mansion we follow Frains lake (the latter being an old Pembrokeshire word meaning stream) to reach the sea coast at Frainslake Sands. The mansion was set in attractive grounds, and adjoining the grounds is Brownslade Farm, and it would seem that the farmstead was the original dwelling house" for we are informed by Malkin (1809) that  "we find the newly-formed residence of Mr. Mirehouse. The ground now occupied by the house and lawn was a field twenty years ago [c.1784]. Mr. Mirehouse began in the same year with Mr. Johnes; and the present state of the Premises evinces the judgment with  which his operations have been conducted" and Malkin later states that the new mansion was built about 1800. Plans and illustrations of the proposed house were made in 1783 by William Thomas architect and surveyor.

The property formed part of the estate of Lort of Stackpole Court, which passed to Alexander Campbell by marriage to the Lort heiress. The old house was a commodious building and in 1670 contained eight hearths, the occupier being John Leach. Leach died in 1675, and in 1709 Lady Campbell granted a lease of Brownslade for 21 years, to his son Abraham Leach, yeoman. The family remained until the death of John Leach soon after 1774, and his widow Elizabeth (Prout) surrendered the existing lease to John Campbell of Stackpole Court in 1789 for 3,500. It is clear that another family lived at Brownslade at the same time as that of Leach, which suggests that there may have been more houses there. This was the family of Holcombe.

The will of William Holcombe of Brownslade, dated 1653, was proved in 1662: he was followed by three generations all being described as of Brownslade, and who interrnarried with Meares of Eastington, Meyrick of Bush, and Corbett of Nash. The last of the family to live there was Admiral Essex Holcombe, R.N., who died in 1769-70.

Not long after this, the Mirehouse family arrived, descended from Mirehouse of Miresdyke Westmoreland.

John Mirehouse, born in 1753 had been at Cambridge University with John Campbell (later created Baron Cawdor), and became his land-agent in Pembrokeshire. In 1786 John Mirehouse, Esq., was tenant of Brownslade, and it was he who built the mansion house, and later bought the freehold. He was High Sheriff in 1810. A progressive farmer and planter of trees, he converted a morass of 2674 neighbouring acres into productive land, for which he received the gold medal of the Society for Encouragement of Arts, Manufacture, and Commerce in 1800.

His estate, including Brownslade, eventually passed to R. B. Levett who had married a Mirehouse daughter, and his son R. W. B.Mirehouse, C.M.G., T.P., D.L. of The Hall of Angle took that surname in 1864. His descendents are still at the Hall.

After the Second World war Brownslade became a guest house . Later the area became part of an artillery training range and the house and farm became ruinous. The old house has been demolished.

Bulliber.

A large farm about half a rnile south of Brownslade, formerly part of the Stackpole Court estate, is now within an artillery range. When John Leach of Slade, yeoman, died in 1675, his eldest son Richard Leach had a lease of Bulliber where he died in 1732 and as he had no sons, he left the lease to his wife Elizabeth. On her death the lease passed to her late husbands nephew, Abraham Leach who remained there until 1776. Abraham was followed by his son Nicholas Leach who died in 1811 without issue. In 1834 John Bowling held a lease of Bulliber. Thereafter it was tenanted by farmers. About 300 years to the south-west of Bulliber are the remains of an ancient promontory fort.

Flimston.

Was a knightly residence under the Earls of Pembroke; William le Fleming from  whom it probably derived its name, held it in 1246,  Walter de Castro in 1324. It is a typical South Pembrokeshire Hall House with a round stone chimney and a vaulted cellar or undercroft.

A farmstead near the coast, due north of Eligug Stacks. According to Dr. B. G. Charles the name is found in ancient documents of the period 1324-1331 as variants of Flemisston, i.e. home of a Fleming many of whom settled in the south of the county. From 1600 onwards the form Flimston is usually found, and is thus spelt on Colbys map (1831). Near the house stood an ancient chapel, and on the land is an early earth fortification. Flimston was a long, commodious dwelling, an early vaulted house, with a hall above the under-croft, and a tall round chimney at the main gable end. Many similar houses occur in south Pernbrokeshire. in 1786 Flemiston was owned by John Hook Campbell with Robert Jones as tenant.

Linney.

Another early house that has now totally vanished except for some low walling.

Near the coast at the south-westem end of the Castlemartin promontary, just south of Linney Burrows, and overlooking the inlet called Black Cove. Marked as a knights fee on Rees 14.century map; as Linney house, on George Owen map, 1603 as residence of  "Row Esq" on the maps of Bowen (1760) and Kitchin (1763). Fenton wrote in 1811,  "Nearer the sea is Linney, an old mansion, formerly the property and residence of the Rows, a family of middling fortune." It became property of the Lorts, and in 1631 the owner was George Lort of Linney, gent. In 1670 John Leach was assessed at five Hearth taxes for Linney, and his will was proved in 1675. The next was Richard Row, gent, who married Elizabeth Wearer. He was High Sheriff of the county in 1729, and died  before1735. His wife died in 1750. They had two children, Francis Row, living at Linney in 1741, who died without issue and Alice who married in 1721 James Bowen of Llwyngwair and had issue.

The property was afterwards leased to George Phelps gent., who was there in 1787 (the owner was John Campbell) and he was followed by his only son John Phelps who inherited 10 leaseholds and was living at Linney in 1804.

Thomas Jones gent., lived there in 1834.

George Roch  farmer was there in 1851. James Roch in 1904.

Moor.

A farmstead south-east of the church and marked on Colbys map. Land Tax 1786, gives Moor and Moor Hays farms, owned by John Campbell, Esq. with Thomas Edwardes, tenant. Fenton writes in 1811says  "Turn to the left from Castlemartin church, to see Moor one of the chief mansions ot this district about two hundred years ago, of a very irregular form, with many ruinous and extensive outbuildings, once entered by a gateway now stopped up, leading to a porters lodge. With very few exceptions, this may serve as a model of the style of building their houses among the greatest of that era in this country, which invariably appears to have been surrounded by a high court wall having a large arched gateway, and essentially differing from the form of the principal houses of the date, in the upper part of the country; where, notwithstanding the Norman encroachment, presumptuously called a conquest, as the strongest proof of their never having been subdued, the natives retained their language and the British fashions in everything continued evidently predominant".

Nearly a century later, Timmins wrote in 1895,  "Moor Farm, where once stood a goodly mansion, of which scarce a stone has been spared." In the 18th century it was the home of John Prout (will proved 1780) whose daughter married John Leach of Brownslade and had issue.

Historic Records

nd 1204 1214

(From an inspeximus 5 Edward III,Cal Pat Rolls 1330 1334 p67 Dugdale , Mon., Vol IV p321)

Grant by William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, for the souls of himself, Isabella , his wife, and all his ancestors and heirs, to the church of St John the Evangelist and St Nicholas the Confessor, of Pembroch, and the monks there of the tithes of his vills of Penbroke, Tynbeh, and Castle Martin, in free alms. Witnesses: Geoffrey, bishop of St Davids Robert, son of Richard, Geoffrey son of Robert, Ralph Bluet, Nicholas Avenel (included among other tithes, was that of Kings Mill at Castlemartin).

1244    We find mention of Sir John de Castro Martini, and again  about 1270. John de Castro signed the Charter of Philip de Angulo as a witness in 1298, and others of the name are spoken of in 1324.

1307 September 20    Inq. Post Mortem, C Edward II File 4(1) (Cal p 21a)

Lands etc of Joan de Valencia, Countess of Pembroke:

Castle Martin   2 Carucates of land each worth 50s yearly; 12a of meadow each acre 18d yearly; 60a pasture worth 30s yearly; turbary, worth 20s yearly; 1 water mill, paying 77 yearly at the two terms aforesaid; rent of 2 free tenants 14s payable at four terms, namely All Saints, the Purification, Whitsuntide, and St Peter ad Vincula; the rent of 60 gable tenants (gabularii) and 12 cottars, 80  8s 1d payable at the aforesaid four terms; pleas and perquisities there are worth 20s yearly. Aymer, etc., is next heir.

1324

At the death of Earl Aymer de Valence in 1324 the Manor of Castlemartin was worth 102. There is mention of the Mill at Ffroyn and again in 1348, the name de Luny also appears as do several versions of old names for Flimston.

Manorial Accounts 1324-33

Inquisition  "into the Estate of Aymer de Valance held on  August 20  1324

In the said county etc. the manor of Castlemartin

1 capital messuage                                   12d yearly;

2 carucates of land worth                        40s each yearly;

15a meadowworth                                    12d per acre

300a pasture worth                                  2d per acre yearly;

100a marshland, worth yearly                 10s, and no more because[....]

1 water mill and 1 wind millworth           9 yearly;

 rent of assize of the free tenants              4  5s 4d. payable as under;

 at All Saints 32s, at the Purification of Holy Mary 10s 8d, at Whitsuntide 32s, on the gul of August 10s 8d;

 the rent of Philip de Luny for a certain weir attached to the lords land at the mill of Ffoyn, payable at All Saints and Whitsuntide,    1     2 s

rent of assize of the free tenants with the rent of ffemyssheston, payable in equal sums at All Saints and Whitsuntide       100 marks;

 the customary rents there                          72 , payable as under;

All Saints 3 17s 2d; Purification of Holy Mary, 62s  9 1 / 2 d; Whitsuntide 32  17s 2d; Gule of August 62s 9 1/2d ;

 the rent of John de Castro and Isabella, his wife, who held for term of life one  third of the vill of Carston,   46s 8d payable in equal sums at Easter and Michaelmas;

 the rent of assize of the ville of Angleat Michaelmas                           18d;

the rent of assize of the vill of Lunyvill of Luny" at the same term    20d;

 the pleas and perquisites of the courts there are worth                        60s yearly.

1324 December 6

Mary, the widow of Aymer de Valence as assigned , as dower, on December 6th 1324, the manor of St Florence and part of the manor of Castlemartin

The Manor of Castle Martin as follows:

a moiety of the capital messuage,  to wit, a moiety of the grange on the south with a certain adjacent plot for the  "Daeria integra, and a moiety of the oxhouse   in the east,

the easementsof which are valued at                                                     6d yearly;

 also 1 carucate of land extended at                                                      40s yearly,

 5a of meadow             "                                                                          5s,

100a pasture                                                                                           16s   8d,   

 33 1/3a. of marsh land                                                                          3s    4d  

the rents and services of

John de Luny,

John Fitz Henry Dawe

David Meyler and Joan his wife, free tenants                                      34s   7d;

 the rents and services of

David Swayn,

Alice Bede,

Henry Milot,

Richard de Cruce,

 Henry Moriz,

Richard Moriz,

Robert Moriz,

David Moriz,

Rose Ermegard,

John Goldeburgh,

John Heylyn,

John Robert

Thomas Richard,

Philip Haye,

Rees Thomas,

Hugh Joyl,

Philip Rys,

William le Yunge

Philip le Yunge,

Res Penkaron,

William Rou,

Philip Rou,

John Knethill,

Elen Gilbert,

Ade de Leffery,

William de Landfey,

Walter Seys,

John de Hibernia,

John de la Hay

Matilda Prikker,

Mable Prikker,

John le Prikker

John son of Philip Rys,

Richard Philip Joye and Mable his wife,

John Griffith,

Henry Milot,

Ade de Slade,

Richard Adam,

John Lewlyn,

Ralph le Machon,

David Eynon,

John Ffiret, junior

John Blethery,

Alice Warynot,

John Kayoc,

John Kedyvor,

John Streyt,

John Bolour,

Robert textor,

Mable le gras,

Robert Rys

Robert le Longe,

Philip de la More,

elen, dau. of Philip Brounyng,

Suetilde of Castle Martin,

Henery Hobbekyn,

and Walter Lide;which are extended at                                                                  33  9s 11d yearly.

And the perquisites of the courts for the said tenants free and bond at                30s yearly.

Sum Total of the Assignment of the said Mary dower in the manor of Castle Martin    40

1331- 2

Min. Acc.,  1207/1

Account of  reeve of Castle Martin from Michaelmas 4 Edward III to 18th February next following

Rents........

  rent of the gable tenants and the cottagers of Castle Martin and Lysseryat All Saints and the Purification of St Mary      20   5s   01/4d

 Mill of Ffoyn                                                                                3s  4d

rent of Fflemygeston                                                                    50s

Rent of Corston                                                                       nothing until Easter

of Walter Gibbe,                                                                      nothing until Easter

for 9 feet of land,                                                                     nothing until Easter

Protection Rents

Nothing until Michaelmas

Farms

for 83 (#)  acres of the demesne lands let at will by Thomas de Hompton steward, nothing until Easter

33 acres of pasture do.

repair of ironwork of the plough.                                                         21 1/2d;

 

Mills   (1) of Castle

(2) Stelton                                                                                            Nil till Easter

Pleas and Perquisites                                                                         13s  4d

                                    Sum of total receipts  23  13s  5 3/4d

Of which expended on boards and nails for one door;                           3d

wages of the messor                                                                             6s  8d

                                                                                                             4s  8d

and  delivered. to Walter  Seys by order of Robert de Harley          19    17d

                                    Owing  4    0s   5 3/4 d

1348 September 24   Pembroke

Writ of certiorari de feodis etc., to John de Shol, escheator in Hereford and the adjacent March of Wales, 24 September, 22

Edward III Extent of all fees and advowsons of churches in the county of Pembroke, made at Pembroke on Thursday in the feast of St Michael de Monte Tumba, 22 Edward III.

 Jurors; John Cantrel, William Adam, William Robelyn, Thomas de Castro, Andrew Wysman, John Beneger..... John Rou, John Robyn, William Parttrahan, John Hilton and Henry Beneger.

Blengilgoyt one tenth and one twentieth fee and 12a of land, held by Philip de Castro Martini, worth yearly 20s.

Kethlihavelot  one tenth and one twentieth fee and 24a of land held by John de Castro Martini, worth yearly 20s

The undermentioned fees were assigned to Mary de Sancto Paulo, countess of Pembroke, after the death of Aymer de Valencia, late Earl of Pembroke.: Stakepol 5 knights fees worth yearly 100m

Fflemingyston, half knights fee worth yearly 100s.

1348 Dec 10 Westminster

Close Roll 22 Edward III, Pt  2 m 5 (Cal., pp579 80)

To Thomas Cloptin, keeper of the wardrobe, to whom the king committed the custody of two parts of the land in co. Pembroke in Wales, which belonged to Laurence de Hastynges, earl of Pembroke, tenant in chief in the kings hand by reason of the minority of the earls heir, to hold until that heir should come of age

Order to permit Richard de Cestr[ia] to hold the office of reaper of Castlemartin and to pay him his wages of 11/2d a day and the arrears thereof, as the earl granted that office to Richard to hold for life , receiving 1d a day for his wages, and afterwards the earl granted him 1/2d a day in augmentation of his wages for  damages received while in the earl service in parts beyond the sea, which grant the king ratified and pardoned Richard any trespass committed by him in acquiring the said office without licence.

1386 Tenby

Inquisitions Miscellaneous Chancery File 237

(Old ref IPM,  10 Richard II,  no 131)

Castlemartyn   Inquisition taken at Pembroke,  etc.    Jurors:  Richard Crippyn,  William Griffyth of Trewent,  Stephen Lucery,  Lawrence Bron,  Richard Ffroyn, Stephen Brugge,  John Adam,  John Knelhel,  Gilbert Lucery, John Lowlyn,  Henry Dobyn and John Werrot,  men of the neighbourhood of Stakpole.  

Who say,  much damage has been done in the manor of Castle Martin,  in the neighbourhood of Stakpole aforesaid,  namely,  the doors and windows of the Hall of the said manor destroyed to the value of 40s.; the posts,  beams, spars,  and the walls of the said Hall,  through defective roofing have rotted,  8;  the doors, glass windows and iron bars (fenestre vitri et vect ferree)  in the rooms annexed to the said hall both at the upper and lower end of the said hall (tam in superiori quam inferiori fine eiusdem aule)  are damaged 20s;  the beams boards (tabule), posts and spars in the said rooms,  through defective roofing,  etc. 9.; the doors and windows in the pantry,  buttery,  and kitchen of the said manor are decayed to the extent of 40s;  also the walls,  posts,  beams,  "rastrees", and spars in the said pantry, etc., through defective roofing,  etc. 8.; when the said William was appointed he received a rabbit warren stocked with rabbits, worth,  besides reprisals,  60s. yearly,  now it is worthless, damage 30. all of which destructions,  etc, as above.

1405  April 4th.

On 4 April 1405, at Lawaden, Robert Raulyn, bachelor in degrees, canon of St Davids, vicar general in spiritualities of the reverend etc., Guy, etc., the reverend father himself being engaged in distant parts, admitted Sir Richard Clement, priest, to the vacant perpetual vicarage of Castelmartyn,

1405. The Earls of Pembroke held the "Castell" in their  own hands, with its associated earth-forts at Bulliber and Flimston, together with Kings Mill and the earth-fort adjacent to it, having a Knight Resident in charge of them.

1406  Sir Francis a Court made a pact with Owain Glyndwr to leave Pembrokeshire alone.  The money paid over being lodged with  Stephen Perrot of Jestynton and John of Castlemartin.

1454  ROT. PARL., if, pp. 260-l.

Confirmation to Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, of divers castles  and manors, etc., including the County, Castle, and Lordship of Pembrolke with its members and appurtenances, to wit:

The hundred and lordship of Castle Martin.

The lordsllip of St. Fflorence.

The Lordship and Forest of Coydrath.

The Castle, Lordship and Town of Tenby.

The lordship and bailiwick of West Pembrok and East Pembroke.

The Bailwicks of Dongleddy, Rous, and Kemmeys.

Half the Ferry of Burton.

With all their appurtenances, viz., rents of assize and gabe rent value yearly 196. 3s. 7d. besides reprisals issues and profits of wind and water mills value yearly 30. 13s. 4d.; profits of coal at Coydrath, 43s. 4d.; customary tenants in the forrest of Codrath, 52s.; the issues and profits of the towns of Pembroke and Tenby 8. 3s. 7d.; the profits of half the ferry of Burton, 16s  10d.; profits and perquisites of the Hundred and County Courts held annually, 13. 14s. 6d.; do. escheats, reliefs, and divers, other casual receipts, 26. 13s. 6d.; prises of wines in the ports of Milford and Tenby and elsewhere in the county,6. 13s 6d;

1489 14 November

On 14 November in the year as above at Lantfey Sir John Baker was admitted to the perpetual vicarage of the parish church of St Martin otherwise called Castilmartyn and instituted e

1502   22 January

On 22 January he (Bishop of St David's)  admitted Master William ap Owen to the perpetual vicarage of Castlemartin vacant by the resignation of Sir John Baker last vicar there.

1502 1 October

On 1 October in the place aforesaid ( Lamphey manor) the bishop admitted Sir Nicholas Percivall to the vicarage of Castlemartin vacant by the resignation of Master William ap Owen last vicar saving entirely an annual pension of 40s for the said Master William etc.

1527    25th January      CASTLE MARTIN. - hundred Court, held on Thursday 25th January 1527

Thomas Perrott, Ar., Maurice Butler, Ar., Thomas Gruffyn, Ar., Henry (Capel) Thomas Thomas (Mercer); John Mody, John Whitecok, David Harry, Robert Poyer Turnor, Richard Roper, William ap Owen, clerk, suitors of the said hundred, came in their own persons and asked to be fined for the remission of their suits of court this year, and they were allowed each of them to pay 4d. (2 suits.) Total, including the said fines, 4s.

1535

At the dissolution Pembroke Priory  had three appropriated Churches:

Castlemartin value 26  13  4d

Monkton value  26  13  4d

Pembroke St Michaels  value 10  0  0d

Assessed value for temporalities  19   6   3 1/2d  - no figure given for spiritualities.

The Vicar at Castlemartin was well off compared with many of his contemporasries with an annual income of  8

1609 May     David Adams  a small farmer  of Castlemartin  died  his estate was vaued at 9  8s  5d  but his debts totalled  11   8s   6d

1613    Lewis Dwnn Deputy Herald of Wales  records that:

Henry Dawes whose wife was Lettice Walters of Roch Castle, was living at Castlemartin probably during the lifetime of his father Griffith Dawes of Bangeston.

1614 David Howell  of Castlemartin died   leaving 41.

Hearth Tax 1670    h = hearth , p= pauper

Adams          James          p

Adams          Alice           p    

Badger         John            h3  

Beavan        Thomas        p   

Bidford        John             p   

Butler          John             p  

Butler         Gillian          p 

Carne         William         h8

Codde        Thomas          p 

Cooke        John               p   

Cozen        John               h2  

David        John               p 

Duberlin    Joseph           p 

Evans    Widdowe            p  

Evans        John               h1  

Evans        David              h1  

Ferrier       Rice                h2  

Gittoe        Peter               h1 

Gwither     Owen              h1 

Harford     George            h1 

Hendy       John                h1 

Hendy      Francis             h2 

Hitching    David              p   

Hitching     Roger             h2 

Hitching     Henry             h3 

Hopley      Thomas            p   

Howell       Thomas           p   

Howell       Thomas           h1h2

Hughes       Thomas          h2  

Hughes       Henry             h2    

Husband     William          p 

James          Deverux         p 

Jermin          John             p  

Jermin          John             p  

Jones           Morgan          p  

Leach          Richard          h1  

Leach          John               h3  

Leach          John               h5       Will proved Carmarthen 16/11/1675  

Llewhelin      John            h4   

Llewhelin      Robert         p 

Llewhelin      George        p  

Lloyd            William        p   

Lort              John esq       h5  

Lovelin          Mathew       h2  

Loveling        Richard       p  

Loveling        Thomas       p

Philkin           Walter        h1 

Phillip            Richard      h1 

Phillips          William       p  

Poyer            Francis         h2  

Proute           Phillip          h1 

Rees             David             p 

Rees             Owan             p 

Rice            Morgan           p 

Rice            John                h2 

Rowland      Henry             h3 

Tasker         Phillip            p    

Thomas       Lewis              h1 

Thomas      George             p 

Thomas      Richard           p   

Thomas       Thomas          h1  

Tucker        Rowland         p  

Webbe       Abell                 p  

William       Griffith           h2  

Williams     Meredith          p 

Williams      John               p 

Williams      Griffith           p

Holcombe    William           Brownslade       h 8

1720's

Richard Rowe and his son Francis gentlemen of Linney mortgaged  the property for just over 1200 to help pay of their debts

1769 NLW  Grand Session Records Wales 4  818/3

5 yeomen of Castlemartin parish appeared before the Pembrokeshire Grand Assizes charged with having stolen on the 21st of March  part of the "Liberty" a sloop home port Cardigan,  which had been wrecked in Freshwater West Bay.

1788 John Campbell of Stackpole obtained an act of Parliament to enclose Castlemarin Corse. The area of 274 acres was described as "bog" and he cut a main drain which discharged into the sea through a tunnel.  He then leased the land to John Mirehouse -- does this help to account for the apparent decline in population.

Land Tax 1791

PARISH AND PROPERTY                SURNAME             FORENAMES

Castelmartin. Bravos land                                 Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Brownslade                                 Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Brownslade                                 Mirehouse           John  (tenant)     

Castelmartin. Bullibor                                        Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Bullibor                                        Loach               Lettice  (tenant)  

Castelmartin. Chapel                                         Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Chapel                                         Philp               John  (tenant)     

Castelmartin. Cloyn                                          Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Cloyn                                          Dawkins             Nat  (tenant)      

Castelmartin. Court                                           Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Court                                           Drinkwater          John  (tenant)      

Castelmartin. Cross                                          Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Cross                                          Hitching            Geo  (tenant)      

Castelmartin. Donton                                        Bargor              Thomas (tenant)     

Castelmartin. Donton                                        Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Ernigate                                       Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Ernigate                                       Hitching            Geo (tenant)       

Castelmartin. Flimston                                       Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Flimston                                       Jones               Richard  (tenant)  

Castelmartin. Froynes Mill                                Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Froynes Mill                                Wilkinson           Geo (tenant)       

Castelmartin. Furzy Close                                 Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Furzy Close                                 Mirehouse           John  (tenant)

Castelmartin. Gupton                                        Campbell            John (owner)

Castelmartin. Gupton                                        Gwyther             Richard  (tenant)  

Castelmartin. Ham                                            Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Ham                                            Mirehouse           John  (tenant)     

Castelmartin. King's Mill                                   Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. King's Mill                                   Hitchings           Henry  (tenant)    

Castelmartin. Linny                                           Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Linny                                           Philp               Geo  (tenant)      

Castelmartin. Linny Row                                   Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Linny Row                                   Reynolds            Henry  (tenant)    

Castelmartin. Moor                                           Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Moor                                           Mirehouse           John  (tenant)     

Castelmartin. Mountscon                                  Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Mountscon                                  Skone               John  (tenant)     

Castelmartin. Oxland                                        Horsford            Lord   (tenant)    

Castelmartin. Oxland                                        Thomas              Wm  (owner)        

Castelmartin. Prickaston                                   Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Prickaston                                   Davies              Stephen  (tenant)  

Castelmartin. Stone Bridge                                Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Stone Bridge                                Mirehouse           John  (tenant)     

Castelmartin. Tythos                                         Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Vicarage                                      Prichard            Rev M  (owner)     

Castelmartin. Warmans Hill                               Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. Warmans Hill                               Griffiths           Geo  (tenant)      

Castelmartin. West Farm                                  Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. West Farm                                  Cousins             Phillip  (tenant)  

Castelmartin. town                                            Butler              widdow (tenant)    

Castelmartin. town                                            Campbell            John (owner)       

Castelmartin. town                                            Owen                John  (tenant)  

1794.

Following a meeting of the county gentry in London on 19 April 1794, the Pernbrokeshire Company of Gentlemen and Yeoman Cavalry was formed. It comprised two troops, each of fifty men. The Dungleddy Troop, led by Lord Milford, recruited  the Haverfordwest and Picton area, while men belonging to the Castlemartin Troop, led by the future Lord Cawdor, Captain John Campbell, came from the environs of Stackpole.

Shortly after Captain Campbells elevation to the peerage in 1796, the Castlemartin Troop was called upon to quell disturbances in market towns in  Pembroke area caused by bread shortage.

Jos [EPH] ADAMS T0 JOHN CAMPBELL ESQ.

I thank you for your kind letter which I received yesterday and perfectly agree with you in opinion relative to the exportation of corn, the supplying the markets and also that no language should be held to irritate a mob, but unhappily great cause was given for alarm by Roch of Paskesiton and Hervey of Angle buying up wheat to export. The report from the magistrates to the Duke of Portlands letter was that wheat is the shortest crop and that there is certainly not enough in the country for its consumption. If then the middling class are sufferers, will they not complain, and their complaints go a great way to irritate the lower orders of people who have most intercourse with them!

The farmers had withheld from supplying the market for a fortnight to enhance the price (then too great), and notwithstanding every argument of policy and interest to them they would not be prevailed on until the people became tumultuous. Now they are justly alarmed, as are the corn factors. The farmers have promised a constant supply to the markets and the factors will not export. So far good is come from evil. you seen to think that party jealousies were the cause, but I do assure you I never saw all ranks, parties and classes of people so irritated (farmers and factors excepted) and all coming in the same language. The heat is now, thank God, allayed, and I trust no cause will be given to revive it, for then no one can pronounce what consequences will ensue.

Your name has been glanced at as acting in contradiction to the spirit of resolutions you brought forward at the quarter sessions by letting Banjeston to Hervey. I told Mr. Mirehouse of it, and afterwards when it was reported he was concerned with Hervey I desired Mr. Hand to tell him of it that he might justify himself: enclosed is his letter to me and my answer. Since Hervey has declared Mirehouse is not concerned, but you"ll see by M"s letter to me there was a plan which he says you were unacquainted with. I mention this as I am zealous for your honour and think I should not act right by you in not acquainting you with it.

The Fencibles with Captain Ackland and the Yeomanry paraded on Saturday last and will again next market day, so that I hope all will be quiet. But I repeat it depends on supplying the markets and no exportation. I hope Lady Caroline and the boys were well when you heard. Miss Adams joins me in every good wish for you all.

Endorsed: Pray present my best respects to Mr. Greville when you see him..

N.L.W. MS. 1352 B. ff. 310-14.

1796 March 10 Pembroke

On my return yesterday from Earwaere I was favoured with your very kind letter and beg to assure you that I shall always be ambitious to merit your confidence and to be assisting in whatever you may have to propose. I should have written you an account of the Field Day had our our meeting  been such as I expected it would when I last wrote to you, but the day turned out exceeding cold and windy and, only 16 attending, we made a very short business of it and appointed another meeting that day fortnight, which will be next Tuesday, when I trust  we shall do better. I shall wait your orders for our meetings, weekly or once a fortnight whichever you please. My brothers account of the conduct of the troop and his own company is highly flattering to both, and I have no doubt that they would have supported the magistrates and their officers properly However, I sincerely hope neither the one nor the other will ever be brought to the disagreeable necessity of firing upon poor creatures who have certainly great reason to complain, for I am convinced, and so are all your friends here, that the scarcity at Pembroke is artificial and not real and that two thirds of the corn remains unthreshed, and that it is owing to the avarice of the famers that our markets are so high.

I have the mortification to find on my return to Pembroke that mutton is at 5d. a pound (the same as I paid in London and Bath all the wintcr for the best), and heree I have had some at nine months old. This is so glaring an imposition that we have come to a resolution of not buying  it till the price falls.

Annexed you have a copy of the resolution which is signed by all the pricipal people here,and  we mean to send it to Haverfordwest for the same purpose. In this business the farmers are alone to blame, for the price of the sheep is so high to the butcher that he cannot get above a shilling or eighteen pence for his trouble.

In short, every order of people here ate dissatisfied with the attempt to impose upon them and do not allow that the farmers here have a right to charge as much as in England, where the price of labour is double and the rent of farms much higher, and, what is remarkable, there never was known any winter to be more grass in the country than the last. Mr. Painter has just told me that the price of sheep at Pembroke is 33 a score. I hope I have not tired you by writing so much on this subject which, as it is a serious one, I could not help giving my sentiments on it. you are so well I known as the friend of the poor here that your coming to the county will be impatiently looked for. Mrs. Ackland unites in best compliments to Lady Caroline Campbell and yourself.

1797.

Acc/to Journal 1885 Vol XLI of the Congress of British Archeological Society

1797 Feb 17th a force sailed from Brest consisting of a  lugger and a corvette escorted by two frigates containing several hundred released jailbirds and galley slaves under the command of an American adventurer named Colonel Tate  ordered by the Directory to land and  "burn Bristol the second city in England for riches and commerce" and thereafter to land in Wales, march across the mountains and do the same to Chester and Liverpool.

The raiders sailed into the Bristol Channel and turned tail when they say what they thought was a warship ( it was the Dublin packet boat) then went to Fishguard  where they anchored on Feb 22nd  

The force landed in a rocky cove below Carregwastad Point    

The Vessels had been sited, and the alarm raised.. Lord Cawder mustered the Castlemartin Yeomanry, Cardigan Militia and Fishguard Volunteers  (Local militia units) and they marched seaward from the village of Llanwnda followed, it is said, by the women of the area wearing their red cloaks.Although the French outnumbered the militia 3 to 1 on seeing the advancing militia Colonel Tate ordered his men to stand firm then went forward and surrendered himself and his army to Lord Cawder unconditionally  "upon principles of humanity". The main problem of the volunters was preventing the enraged Welsh villagers from cutting the throats of the the French prisoners as they were marched of to jail.

Acc/to Roger Worsley.

25 of the imprisoned French captured after the invasion at Fishguard  chatted up some girls in Pembroke and enlisted their aid in escaping. Two local girls Eleaner Martin and Ann Beach fell for some of the French and helped them escape.The French dug a tunnel and the girls took away the spoil in yoked tubs pretending it to be sewage. The tunnel was over 60yds long. They all then got away by stealing the yacht belonging to Lord Cawder.

Fifty Six years later Queen Victoria awarded the battle honour "Fishguard" to the Yeomanry, and it remains the only one given to a British Army unit for opposition to an enemy force within the British Isles. The Pembroke Yeomanry also has battle honours for:"South Africa, 1901" "Egypt, 1916/17", "Gaza", "Jerusalem, "Jericho", Tel Asur", "Palestine, 1917-18", Somme, 1918", Bapaume 1918", "Hindenburg Line", "Epehy", "Pursuit to Mons" and "France and Flanders, 1918".

1814

The average wage for an outdoor labourer was 5d a day in winter and 7 1/2d a day in summer.

During the early part of the century labourers received a cottage and potato plot at a low rent and their fuel completely free, but by the end of the century these benefits had almost disappeared.

1834

The rocks on this part of the coast consist of an irregular series of broken stratifications apparently thrown together by some violent convulsion and presenting an uncommon grandeur of appearance From March to Augusts these rocks are the resort of that migratory bird called the eligug, which during that period deposits its solitary egg on the shelving projections of the cliffs ,and, supporting it with its foot, which possesses a degree of warmth sufficient for the purpose of incubation, after having hatched its young and enabled it to shift for itself, leaves the vacant place to be occupied by another of the swarm that covers  the surface of the water, waiting for an opportunity to perform the same process This bird cannot take wing from land: as soon, therefore as the young is able to fly, the parent bird throws it into the water, from which it rises with remarkable strength of wing over that element.

This parish is totally enclosed, and the land is mostly fertile  and in a good state of cultivation: the Cors, a tract of land comprising about three hundred acres, was brought into cultivation by the late Mr. Mirehouse, of Brownslade, to whom, in 1810, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce  adjudged their gold medal for clearing waste moors he same gentleman also surrounded his house at Brownslade with luxuriant plantations, which, from their exposure to the violence of the south-west winds, it was generally apprehended would wither in the. shoot; but. under the judicial management of that eminent agriculturist, the trees have flourished in opposition to every impediment, and, though much neglected of late by the unavoidable absence of the present  proprietor, who is one of the special pleaders to the city of London, during the greater part of the year, are highly ornamental to the neighbourhood. Besides Brownslade, the seat of John Mirehouse, Esq., Corston, the respectable residence of Abraham Leach, Esq., is in this parish.

The whole of the district abounds with numerous military works and fortifications, thrown up during the frequent contests which took place between the Danish pirates who infested this part of the coast, which, from its exposed and defenceless situation, was much subject to their attack  and the native Welsh, who resolutely repelled their aggression: one of these may be seen on a farm in this parish, called Bully Bar.

The parish abounds with limestone of excellent quality, in the centre of which is found clay much used in the manufacture of fire bricks.

The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of St. Davids, rated in the king's books at 7  17s   6d. endowed with 400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of Earl Cawdor, who is also impropriator of the tithes. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is an ancient structure, and has undergone thorough repair within the last ten years. There was anciently a chapel at Flimston, which has long since gone to decay.

A plot of ground, on which are some cottages inhabited by the poor of the parish was given by an unknown  benefactor but there are  no particulars of the donation on record. The castle of the family of Martill, descendants of Martin deTours, and from which the parish and the hundred are supposed to derive their name, was in a state of ruin prior to the time of Leland, who says,  "Towarde this extrem part of Pembrokshire be the vestige of Martin Castle".

The average annual expenditure for  the support of the poor is 350.15

1847

Education.

-PARISH OF CASTLEMARTIN.

I visited this Parish on the 18th of December. The children generally attend the Earl of Cawdors school in the parish of Warren, which is not far off.

There is however a small dame-school held in part of an old building (occupied by a labourer and his wife) in the churchyard. The school has been furnished with cards and Prints by the Vicar and Mrs. Mirehouse of Brownslade. I found the room clean and comfortable, and the  mistress a respectable person of her class. There were only two little children present owing to the extreme severity of the weather and the deep snow.

1858 Flimston Brickworks assessed for rating purposes at 25.

Population.

1536 Number of Households  65

1670 Number of Hearth Tax Payers  70

1801 Number of families 61 - This suggests that there had been a depopulation in the area.

1851  total 404   215m  189f

A Topgraphical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

Burials from Wrecks.

"Passengers and crew of the  "Edinburgh," bound from New Orleans to Liverpool, wrecked 8 February 1839, On Linney Head."

"Owner and members of the crew of the schooner  "Wave of Aberystswyth," wrecked in Freshwater Bay, 26th October, 1859."

"21 of the passengers, officers and crew of the  "Mars"  from Waterford to Bristo1, wrecked off Linney Head, 1st April, 1862."

(including Sgt. Michael M Feeley, 1st Batt. 21st Fusiliers,)

"Members of the crew of S. S.  "Tormer," wrecked off Linney Head. October 30th 1894"

"Members of the crew of H.M. Transport  "Ionian" wrecked  off. Linney Head, 20th October, 1917.

These men are commemorated by Service Grave Stones, under the care of the Imperial War Graves Commission".

Cilgerran                     191431

An elongated village above the gorge of the River Teifi. The castle is justly famous, having been portrayed (among others) by the artists Richard Wilson and J.M.W. Turner. The massive fortress, constructed of slate slabs with impressive drum towers, was built in 1093. it is well maintained and well worth a visit. Cilgerran is the venue for an annual Coracle Regatta. Just outside the village is the entrance to the Cardigan Wildlife Park, now under new management following the splitting up of the Coedmore Estate.

Acc/to Wade 1913.

A largish village (once a town) in Pembrokeshire situated on the Teify with a station on the Whitland - Cardigan line. The chief industry is quarrying. The place possesses the remains of a castle built on jutting rock overhanging the river which here flows between high banks most beautifully wooded.

The Norman who first fortified the site was Hugh de Montgomery but the builder of the existing fabric was William Marshall. It owes its present ruinous condition to Cromwell and time. It is said to have consisted of an outer and inner bailey, and to have had five gates The remains include little more than two round towers , the walls are of immense thickness and very rude construction . The Castle forms the object of a picture by Turner.

In the Churchyard south of the Church is a bilingual Ogam Stone The Latin inscription has been read TRENEAGUUSSI FILI MACUTRENI HIC IACIT

Cilgerran is high above the tidal limit of the River Teifi  at a natural river crossing but accessible to ships.

There was a market held here the first record dates from 1300.

During the reign of Henry I (1100 - 1135) two new Marcher Lordships were established - Cemaes and Cilgarran.  Gerald de Windsor held Cilgarren but the area was recaptured by the Welsh. Castle was probably rebuilt in 1223 after the Normans recaptured the area by the son of William Marshall of Pembroke.

Castle built on a rising crag where Teifi is joined by Afon Plysgog at the highest tidal limit for supplies to be brought by sea.

The site was an iron age promontary fort.

Once regarded as a borough although no charter is known.

Parish Church St Llawddog and may be the centre of an early Welsh settlement.

6c Ogam/ latin Stone in the Churchyard commemorating Tregenussus son of Macutrenus.

There is documentary evidence of castle in 1166 and the town in 1204. The castle rebuilt mid 13c under the direction of William Marshall.

Of the original Church only the tower left as the church was rebuilt in 1836 and the 1850s.

There were 22 tax payers in 1292.

Farming and fishing were the chief occupations of the inhabitants  - fishing by means of coracles.

Churches of Pembrokeshire - Slater.

Cilgerran - St Llawddog

Only the 13c west tower and three worn 18c memorials survived the rebuilding of the church in 1855. There is an Ogram stone outside to the south.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

This is a rectory which originally appears to have been in the patronage of the Earls of Pembroke. In 1594 the Queen was patroness of the living - Owen's Pem.

On 3 Dec., 1325, the advowson of the church of Cilggerran, of the yearly value of 6 marks, was assigned to Thomas Le Blount and Juliana, his wife, late the wife of John de Hastings, tenant in chief, deceased, as dower for the said Juliana from her late husband. - Close Rolls.

Described as the church of Elygarthen, Cilgerran Church was assessed in 1291 at 4. - Taxatio.

Eylegarran. - Ecclesia ibidem ex presentacione Dozane Regine Anglie Marchionisse Pembr. unde Thomas David clericus est rector valet communibus annis 9. Inde decima 18s. Valor Eccl.

Under the heading "Livings Discharged:" - Kilgarran alias Culgerran alias Cylgerddan R. (St. Llawdog). The Prince of Wales. King's Books, 9. Clear yearly value, 38. 50 - Bacon's Liber Regis.

On 5 Oct., 1877, a faculty was granted for the erection of a reredos in the parish church, and on 27 March, 1879, a faculty was granted for the erection of a Re-Table in the same church. This Re-Table was to be a plain unadorned oak structure to be placed above the Communion Table to fill a vacancy, which had been overlooked when the reredos was erected.

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales  1839 S Lewis.

KILGERRAN (CIL-GARON), a parish, and formerly an incorporated market-town, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kilgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Cardigan; containing 1149 inhabitants. This place owes its origin to the erection of a castle, of great strength and extent, the original foundation of which is involved in much obscurity: some writers attribute it to Roger de Montgomery, and others to Gilbert, Earl of Clare. In 1164, this important fortress was taken from the English by Rhys ab Grufydd, Prince of South Wales, by whom it was considerably strengthened; and in the following year the Normans and Flemings made an unsuccessful attack upon it. During the civil war between Rhys's two sons, Grufydd and Rhys, the former of whom had succeeded to his father's dominions, it was captured in 1199 by Grufydd, from whom, however, it was wrested by William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, about the year 1204. Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, in 1215, included the capture of this castle among his numerous conquests in this part of the principality, but ceded it, in the following year, to a native chieftain named Maelgwyn, from whom it was retaken in 1222, by the Earl of Pembroke. This nobleman immediately commenced the erection of a new fortress, which was finished by the garrison, during the earl's absence in London, whither he had been summoned to attend the king. The castle thenceforward continued annexed to the earldom of Pembroke, until the decease of the youngest son of Earl William, when the vast estates of the family descended to coheiresses, and the castle and lordship of Kilgerran were separated from the earldom. The importance of the castle imparted a proportionate degree of consequence to the town, which was endowed with corporate privileges, and continued to flourish until the decay of the former, on which it underwent a like decline.

It is now only a small village, consisting of one street, about half a mile in length, the houses in which are mean, straggling, and irregularly built, with the church at the western extremity.

The river Teivy, which runs on the east and north to its estuary below Cardigan, here winds in majestic reaches along the vale to which it gives name, and which at every bend presents some fresh features of novel and picturesque beauty. In sailing up the Teivy, in one part of its course, the hanging woods that clothe the sides of the environing hills recede from the margin of the stream, and leave room for a narrow strip of meadow land, whilst the varied scenery on the opposite bank is terminated by the august ruins of the castle, on the summit of a projecting rock rising precipitously from the brink of the river.

Upon the Cardiganshire side of the Teivy, the noble woods which give name to the valuable estate and mansion of Coedmore, cover the sides and summit of the rock, partially disclosing at intervals impending masses, which contrast finely with the sylvan beauties of the scene. Pursuing the course of the river, rich groves, alternating with the naked rock, continue to excite the admiration of the traveller, till he arrives within a short distance of Lljchrhyd bridge, where the vale expands on either side, margined by luxuriant meadows, from which the hills recede, beautifully varied with churches, seats, and cottages, embosomed in the foliage of successive plantations.

In the parish are three mansions, namely, Glandovan, the seat of Robert Frederick Gower, Esq., of which family was Admiral Sir Erasmus Gower, who accompanied Earl Macartney in his embassy to China, and greatly distinguished himself in the naval service of his country; Castell Maelgwyn, the property and residence of Abel Lewis Gower, Esq.; and Rhts-yGilwen, the elegant modern mansion of John Humphreys, Esq., who obtained this estate by marriage with Catherine, daughter of the late Thomas Colby, Esq., of Fynnonau, and erected the present house.

There are extensive slate-quarries in the parish, which are actively worked, and enjoy a facility of communication with the sea by means of the Teivy, which is navigable as high as Llechrhyd bridge, about three miles above Cardigan. The market, held on Wednesday, has fallen into disuse; but fairs take place annually on August 21st and November 12th, for the sale of cattle, horses, pigs, &c. The place has long since lost many of its municipal privileges, but still retains a semblance of its former importance in the appointment of a portreeve, who receives the tolls taken at the fairs, a town-clerk, two bailiffs, and an indefinite number of burgesses. Two courts are summoned every year by the bailiffs under warrants from the portreeve, the one soon after Michaelmas-day, and the other at Easter, upon days fixed by the portreeve for the time being; and at the first-named of these courts, the jury, who are burgesses, present one of the burgesses to fill the office of portreeve after remaining three years on the list. The town-clerk and bailiffs are chosen by the portreeve; and the freedom is acquired by presentment of the jury at one of the courts leet, when persons are admitted, who, after the expiration of a year, become entitled to the privileges of burgesses. These privileges consist of exemption from toll, and the use, under certain regulations, of a large tract of unenclosed grazing land, containing from 60 to 100 acres, and some stone and slate quarries.

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at 9, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of 190, and there is a glebe of nine acres, valued at 9. 10. per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Llawddog, was an ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, with a square tower at the western end, but the body of the edifice was some years ago taken down and rebuilt, with the aid of a grant of 100 from the Church-Building Commissioners, and 60 from the late Abel Anthony Gower, Esq.: it is now in a very respectable condition. In the churchyard is a rude stone, bearing an inscription now illegible, but evidently a Roman monumental stone. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists.

A National school-house, with a masters house attached, was built in 1845, at a cost of upwards of 500, defrayed by local subscription, and grants of 100 from the National Society, and 90 from the Committee of Council on Education. Four Sunday schools are also held, one of them in connection with the Established Church.

The ruins of the castle rank among the most striking, extensive, and picturesque remains of ancient fortresses in South Wales. They stand on the edge of a rock rising perpendicularly from the southern bank of the Teivy, and consist of several bastions of different forms, with portions of the curtain wall: the castle had two wards, the plan of which, with the position of the integral parts, may be clearly traced. It is at present, together with that of Pembroke, held by grant from the crown (made in the reign of James II), by Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan, in the county of Cardigan.

Cilgwyn

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter  1994.

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales S Lewis 1849.

KILGWYN (CIL-GWYN), a chapelry, in the parish of Nevern, union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (SSE.) from Newport; containing 444 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary; it is situated at the foot and near the south-eastern declivity of Carn Ingli mountain and common, on the former of which are some ancient carneddau.

Cilrhedyn - St Teilo's

This rectory was in early days in the patronage of the parishioners of the parish, but by the year 1594 it had come into the hands of the Crown. - Owens Pem. So far as is known, the only mention of the institution of a vicar to this church was in 1404.

This church was assessed in 1291 at 10 - Taxatio.

Eyleredyn. Ecclesia ibidem ex presentacione diver-sorum patronorum ejusdem parrochie unde Iodowicus ap Griffith clericus est rector et valet cornrnanibus anni's ixH. Inde in sinodalibus et procuracionibus sol" archi-diacono quolibet anno vg ixd. Et in visitacione ordinaria quolibet tercio anno xxd. Et rernanet clare, 8 12s. 7d. Inde decima 17s. 3d. Valor Eccl

Under the heading "Livings remaining in Charge" Kilreddin, Cul Rhyden R. (St. Teilaw). Syn. atld Prox. quolibet anno 5s. gd. Ordinaria Vis. quolibet tertio anno rs. 8d. The Prince of Wales. 01im divers. Person. Paroch. Patr. King's Books, 8 12s. 8d, 90 Yearly tenths, 17s. 3d. Bacon's Liber Regis.

On 16 Dec., 1853, the parlour of Cadwa Hall, in the parish of Cilrhedyn, was licensed for divine service during the rebuilding of the parish church.

Topographical Dictionary of Wales 1849.

Kilrhedyn (Cil-Rhedyn)

 KILRHEDYN (CIL-RHEDYN), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, chiefly in the hundred of Elvet, county of Carmarthen, and partly in that of Knlgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (S.W.) from Newcastle Emlyn; containing 1108 inhabitants, of whom 857 are in the Carmarthenshire, and 251 in the Pembrokeshire, portion. This place is situated on the Star road leading from Carmarthen to Cardigan, and has the parish of Kenarth on the north, Trelech-ar-Bettws on the south, Penboyr on the east, and Clydey on the west. The parish is intersected by the small river Cych, which here forms the boundary line between the two counties; and comprises 7856 acres, whereof 1296 acres are arable, and the remainder consists of woodland and heath, including a considerable extent of turbary. The river Pedran also winds through the lands, which are in some parts low and flat, and in others hilly, ornamented occasionally with oak and other timber; the chief produce is corn.

In the parish are two neat residences, GlbsBant and Dyfryn.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at 8. 12. 8d, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; net income, 192. The church, situated in Pembrokeshire, and dedicated to St. Teilo, contains 152 sittings. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, and Presbyterians; and some Sunday schools.

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Clarbeston

Acc/to South Pembrokeshire Place Names by P Valentine Harris.

1230 Clarenbaldi. "Valor" Clarebodeston: From a Germanic personal name "Clarenbald".

Acc/to Topographical Dictionary Of Wales 1834.

CLARBESTON, a parish, in the union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 8 miles (N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 244 inhabitants. The parish is detached from any high road, and situated near the East Cleddy river. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with 800 royal bounty, and 400 parliamentary grant; net income, 60; patron, the Rev. Thomas Thomas; impropriator, W. H. Scourfield, of the Mote, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of 44. 10., with a glebe of 48acres. 2rod. 25perch., valued at 24. 7. per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Martin, has been rebuilt, and is a very neat edifice. The Baptist denomination have a place of worship here, and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other supported by the Baptists.

In the parish is an artificial mount, which is surrounded by a hedge, about fifty yards in diameter, and is supposed to have been formed for defence at some early period.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

This benefice is a perpetual curacy, which  formed part of the possessions of the Knights of St. John, of Jerusalem at Slebech, and was given to that Preceptory by Wizo, the Flemish lord of Wiston, Walter his son and Walter, the grandson of Wizo, as is shown by the confirmatory charter of Bishop Anselm, which describes the church as "eclesiam Sancti Martini de Villa Clarenbaldi." The church was still appropriated to the Preceptory of Slebech in 1533, and was valued in the Valor Eccl at 6.

By 1594 it had come into the King's hands. - Owens Pem.

Under the heading "Not in Charge" Clarbeston Cur. (St. Martin). Sir John Stepney,. certified value. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

31 May, 1649, the inhabitants of Clarbeston applied to the Committee for Compounding, appointed by the Commonwealth, for an augmentation for their minister, who had only 10 a year, while the tithes which were held by Sir John Stepney of Prendergast, Bart., amounted to 21. On 1 Oct,, 1649, Sir John Stepney's fine of 1230 was ordered to be reduced to 530 on his settling 70 a year on the rectories of Clarbeston, Llanycefn, Egremont, and Little Newcastle. Papers.

It would appear from the records in the Diocesan Registry that considerable difficulty had always been experienced in filling this living, long vacancies having occurred at different times.

On 4 Dec., 1840, the schoolroom near the church was licensed for divine service during the rebuilding of the church.

On 2 Dec., 1891, Clarbeston Voluntary School was licenced for divine service during the restoration of the church, the faculty for the restoration being issued on 7th June 1892.

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter  1994.

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features.

John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales  1870-72.

CLARBESTON, a parish in Narberth district, Pembroke; 2 miles NNE of Clarbeston Road r. station, and 5 miles NW of Narberth. Post town, Haverfordwest. Acres, 1, 588. Real property, 1, 127. Pop., 191. Houses, 33. The property is divided among a few. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of St. Davids. Value, 60. Patrons, the Executors of J. Phillips, Esq. The church is very good.

John Bartholomew, Gazetteer of the British Isles  1887.

Clarbeston, parish. and village with railway station. (Clarbeston Road), in mid Pembrokeshire, 6 miles NE. of Haverfordwest, area 1588 acres., pop. 153;  P.O., called Clarbeston Road. The village is 2 miles NW. of station.

In 1801, Clarbeston, total population was 180. In 1901 it was 158. By 1971 the population was 75.

Cylch-Bychan     Cylch-Gwaelod-Y-Wlad     Cylch-Mawr

Cylch-Bychan

1834 Acc to Topographical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

A hamlet in the parish of St David's hundred of Dewisland county of Pembroke 1 1/2 miles E from St David's containing 359 inhabitants. It forms one of the four cylchs or hamlets into which the parish is divided.

Cylch-Gwaelod-Y-Wlad

1834 Acc/to Topographical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

A hamlet in the parish of St David's hundred of Dewisland county of Pembroke 1  mile W from St David's containing 512 inhabitants  The name denotes that it consists of the lower or coast portion of the parish which is divided into four cylchs or hamlets this one forming its western division and extending along the sea coast being the most westerly part of the principality. The island of Ramsey on which there is a single farm is included in this hamlet.

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Cylch-Mawr

1834 Acc/to Topographical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

A hamlet in the parish of St David's hundred of Dewisland county of Pembroke 2 1/2   miles NE from St David's containing 492 inhabitants. The adjunct signifies that it is the larger hamlet into which the parish is divided.

Clydey    (Clydai)     251355

South Wales by Wade 1913.

New Castle Emlyn. The church possesses a chalice of 1574.

In the church and churchyard are some inscribed stones.

Isolated Church; St Clydai 13c in raised circular churchyard partly rebuilt.

To the SE is an earthwork called Castell Crychydd (the Herons castle), surrounding a mound.

Glynne Welsh Churches 1868 p203.

A large church approaching a state of ruin. It consists of a nave and chancel with south aisle extending along both, a western tower, all of the rude Perpendicular period. The chancel arch is rude pointed. There is a rood door set high up, and on the north side id the projection for the staircase. The outer walls are whitewashed everything is decayed and out of repair.

RCAM Pembroke 1920 No 197.

The church has several times been restored and few features remain. In the north wall of the nave are the entrance and three stairs leading to the former rood loft.

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter  (1994).

The west tower with a low pointed arch and the stoup inside the north doorway are 13c. The rood loft staircase and the south aisle (the Capel Mair) may be 15c. The porch and the chancel are Victorian, as are all  the windows. There are two Ogram/latin grave stones and one Latin stone, one has ring cross on as well.

1] Latin   SOLINI FILIUS VENDONI (Solini son of Vendoni)

2] Latin/Ogham   ETTERNI FILI VICTOR (Etternus son of Victor)

Ogham Ettern...V....tor

3] Latin/Ogham   DOBUNI FILI EVOLENGI

Ogham ufot Maqui.s.......

Carved head in the interior of North doorway

1834 Acc/to Topigraphical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

Clydey (Clydai), a parish in the hundred if Kilgerran, county of Pembroke,6 miles (SW) from Newcastle Emlyn, containing 1385 inhabitants. This parish constitutes the endowment of a prebend in the cathedral church of St Davids, which is rated in the king's books at 12 and is the gift of the Bishop. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconary of Cardigan and diocese of St David's rated in the kings books at 6, endowed with 600 parliamentary grant and in the patronage of the bishop of St Davids. The church dedicated to St Clydai, is a plain substantial structure, with a massive square tower.

There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists. Fairs are held at Henveddau in this parish on May 13th September 17th and October 30th. The average annual expenditure for the support of the poor amounts to 290 8s.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

1564. Jan. 13. David Llewellin, vice John Gwyn.

Coedcanlas

This benefice is a vicarage, but although the Prebendary of Clydey is the rector, the presentation to the living belongs to the Bishop of St. Davids.

This church was assessed in 1291 at 10. - Taxatio.

Cledey - Ecclesia ibidem ex collacione Episcopi Menevensis unde Johannes Spendlove clericus est inde preb-endarius in Ecclesia Cathedrali Menevensi valet cor-munibus annis 12. Inde decima 24s - Valor Eccl.

Cleydey. - Ecclesia Vicaria ibidem ex collacione Episcopi Menevensis unde Morganus Thomas est vicarius valet communibus annis 6. Inde decima 12s. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading,  "Livings Discharged" - Clydey alias Clydai V. (St. Cristiolus). bishop of St. Davids. Rector or Preb. is Propr. of the Great Tithes. King's Books, 6. Clear yearly value, 25. - Bacon's Liber Reg.

On 27 Nov., 1899, a faculty was granted for the removal of a cottage on Velindre Farm, in the parish of Llanfyrnach, Pems., belonging to this living.

Vicars 

1275.              Henry de Bray.

1535-6.           Morgan Thomas.

1560. Jun. 5. Maurice Williams.

1563.             John Gwyn.

Acc/to Daugleddau Estuary  published by the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority.

St Marys Church (remains of): From the records in the archives of St Davids Cathedral it is known that St Marys Church dates from 1401 and was rebuilt in 1725. The poverty in the area is reflected in the very small headstones (inscribed only with the persons initials) in a tiny cemetary. The four external walls of the Church are virtually intact.

Survey of South Wales Chantries 1546  by Evan D Jones.

The Paryshe of Coydkenles in the sayd County of Pembroke.

1] Oure Lady Fre Chappell of Coydkenlas

2] Founded to Fynde one prest for euer And he to haue for his Salary by yere certeyn Tithes & oblicions which is worth one yere with an other by estimacon xlix.s with xx.ti Acres of glebe land being parcell of the same     xlix.s

3] hath cure of soole to the nomber of xlvij. to howseling people & doth mynyster sacramentses and sacramentalles being distant from any oyer Paryshe Churche one myle & half.

4] xlix.s wherof

For the prest stipend                           xliiijs  j.d obolus (halfpenny)

for the tenthes                                     iiij.s    x.d obolus

                                                            xlix.s

And so Remaynythe                           nil

5] xxxj.s

1834 Acc to Topigraphical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

COEDCANLASS (COED-CANLAIS), a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 8 miles (S. E. by S.) from Haverfordwest; containing 245 inhabitants. This small parish is situated on the eastern bank of Milford Haven, from which there is a ferry to Llangwm, on the opposite shore; and is five miles distant from Pembroke, across the ferry at Lawrenny. The substratum of the soil is a fine limestone rock, which is quarried to a considerable extent. The living is a donative, with a stipend of 20 per annum, paid by Sir John Owen, Bart., the impropriator. The church is a small picturesque building of great antiquity, repaired some years since, at the expense of Sir John Owen: divine service is only occasionally performed in it, but burials generally, the remaining ecclesiastical rites being celebrated at Martletwy. Here are the ruins of an ancient mansion, which bore the same name as the parish, and belonged to the family of Percival.The average annual expenditure for the support of the poor is 9 15s.

RCAM

196. The Parish Church (6 in. Ord. Surv. sheet, Pem. 34 S.W.)

The church of this parish exists no longer except as a shapeless and indescribable ruin. It was once a free chapel, to which the Episcopal Registers of St. Davids under the year 1401 record the admission of John Diane, clerk,  "to the free chapel of the Blessed Mary of Coed Kenlace," who,  "touching the most holy gospels, took a corporal oath of canonical obedience, and that he would faithfully cause divine services to be conducted in the said chapel as had been accustomed of ancient times".

About the year 1600 George Owen describes it as being  "in decay" (Pem., ed. Henry Owen, i, 309). According to Browne Willis the chapel was rebuilt by Sir Arthur Owen of Orielton (d. 1753); but this probablv means merely that it was so far repaired as to permit of services being held therein. The last nomination to the curacy took place in 1830.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

 This benefice was originally a free chapelry. Whether it ever belonged to the Knights of St. John at Slebech is uncertain. It does not figure in the list of the possessions of that house, but as will be seen from the extract from the Valor Ecd. given below, an annual pension of 2s. a year was payable to the Preceptor of Slebech. However this may have been, the chapel belonged in 1535/4 to John Butler of Coedeenlas. By 1594 it had been acquired by purchase by Benston, and the edifice was then in decay. - Owen Pem.

The chapel afterwards came into the possession of the Owens of Orielton.

Coadcanlass Chap., having laid 60 years in ruins, was neatly built on the Old Foundation, and endowed by Sir Arthur Owen, Bart., anno 17I8. - M.S. Browne Willis. At the present time the chapel is again in Ruins.

Libera Capella de Coidekinles. - Libera capella ibidem ad donacionem Johannis Butler patroni ibidem unde Philippus Lloid est inde custom Et valet per annum liijs iiijd. Inde sol in sinodalibus et procuracionibus quolibet anno iis ix&. Et in quadam pensione sol pre-eeptori de Slebeehe quolibet anno ij.- Et valet dare 48s. 7d. Inde deeima 4s. Ioid. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading  "Not in Charge" - Coadcanlass Chap. in Martletwy Parish. John Butler, Patr., 1535; Sir Hugh Owen, Bart. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

Cosheston

 Elongated village-classic Norman type - ancient Saxon strip fields running perpendicular to main street - signs of farming from about 600-700AD.

Middle stone age flints found by river.

The Brewery.

Village Pub - Victorian Front, concealing earlier building (there was until recently another Public House called the Carpenters Arms kept by Mrs Martin where my father used every dinner time buy his tobacco.)

Cosheston -- St Michael & all Angels.

This church consists of chancel, nave, north aisle, south transept known as the Paskeston chapel, south porch and small turret at the west end. Under a facultv obtained in August 1885. "for rebuilding portions of the church," much of the former structure disappeared, the present building being practically a new one on the old foundations. Remains of the rood stairs, and of a tomb recess in the Paskeston chapel, have been retained. All the windows are modern as is the vestry  The pier between the north aisle and the nave was removed and an arcade substituted. It was refloored and tiled.  In the north-west angle of the chancel a squint-passage to the north aisle was retained and is now used for the organ; as was also the turret with its small octagonal stone spire, the vane on which is dated C.H. 1781. The spire was removed in 1980  and the vane replaced. The rood screen to the Paskeston Chapel, the rood beam, the woodern crucifix and the Bishop's Chair were carved by Mr John Mathias.

The entrance to the tower is by a flight of external stone steps. Under the nave wall between the Paskeston chapel and the south doorway is a well , now covered, which is said to have been used formerly as an adult baptistry. The font is modern; the basin of an earlier font was for some times at the rectory but is now in the Church.

1115  believed to be well established stone built Christian Church on the site already.

In the  "taxatio" records of 1291 the church is entered as Ecclesia Costyn The name of the parish being Costyn or Costonston.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire  Parsons.

This benefice is a rectory, the patronage of which has continued in lay hands from the earliest known date. In 1594 the patron was Henry Wyrriott of Orielton, the last male of his name, whose daughter and heiress married Hugh Owen of Bodeon Anglesey the founder of the family of Owen of Orielton. The patronage continued in the Owen family till 1789, yet curiously enough it was not appendant to any manor. - Owens Pem.

Under the name of Ecclesia de Villa Costyn, this church was assessed in 1291 at 14 13s. 4d., the tenths thereon payable to the King being 1 9s. 4d.

Costenston Rectoria. - Ecclesia ibidem ex presenta-cione Henrici Wyriott armigeri, unde Johannes Lowys clericus est rector habens rectoriam et glebam et valent fructus et emolimenta ejusdem per annum xiji. Inde sol in oIdinaria visitacione quolibet tercio anno xvjd. Et in visitacione archidiaconi quolibet anno pro sinodali-bus et procuracionibus vR ixd. Et remanet clare 11 12s 11d. Inde decima 23s. 3d.

Under the heading  "Livings Discharged - Cocheston alias Cosheston R. (St. Michael). Ordinario quolibet tertio anno, 1s 4d. Archidiac quolibet arulo 5s. 9d. Sir Arthur Owen, Bart., 1740. 1751; Sir Willum Owen, Bart., 1774, 1780. Clear yearly value 32. King's Books; 11 12s 11d. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

On 10 August, 1885, a faculty was obtained for taking down and rebuilding portions of the parish church.

Rectors

1325                          William Dryhull

1500                          William Harris

1535-6                        John Lowys

1554                          Lewis Lloyd

1572                          Francis Laugharne

1616                          Lewis Lewys

1663                          William Jones

1663                          Morgan Davies

1695                          Owen Jones

1772                          Rice Evans

1740                          George Stokes, M.A.

1751                          Lewis Evans

1780                          William Holcombe, M.A.

1789                          John Holcombe, B.A.

1842                          William Bowling, B.A.

1879                          Thomas George Cree, M.A.

1895                          William George Spurrell, M.A.

1911                          Jeremiah John Woolsey

1935                          Hugh Thomas

1942                          Vernon Johns

1943                          Earnest Jones - C.I.C.during war.

1946                          Vernon Johns

1953                          Gwynne T. Jones

1975                          Colin W. Bowen

1985                          Alan Thomas - P.I.C.

The earliest registers survive from 1723 but there is a gap around 1740 to 1754.

The average congregation in 1851 was in the morning 94 and 97 in the evening - compare this with the number of Easter Communicants of 41 in 1996.

Non Conformist Chapels.

There was originally a non-conformist Chapel called Nebo situated near Mount Pleasant Cosheston. This appears to have begun through the efforts of home mission and a place of worship was erected in 1832. It was linked with the Tabanacle  Pembroke. In 1851 the average congregation was 20 in the morning and 55 in the evening.

Independent Chapel.

Under the jurisdiction of the Independent Chapel at Pembroke.

In 1851 it is recorded that John Lewis was the Deacon  and that meetings were held for prayer exclusively every Sunday evening  The average congregation was 45

Cross.

Only the base stone (26 inches by 24 inches), with square socket-hole, remains, apparently in its original position on the south side of the church.

Rectory.

 This has been rebuilt; parts of an earlier house having  plain vaulted basement chambers are incorporated in the modern house. Visited, 3rd May, 1920.

The Original Church rectory -- one of the two oldest rectories in Britain  1535 Church Rectory described as  "a house, stables and outbuildings of 2 acres valued at 10" - W. Glynne, Notes, Arch. Camb., 1886,-V, iii, 55.

It is now in private hands having been sold by the church about 1975.

 St. Davids Well.

(6 in. Ord. Surv. sheet, Pem. 10 N.E.; lat. 510 42" 12 " long. 40 51" 20 ").

A spring in the east side of a field of the same name on Paskeston Farm to which pilgrimages are said to have been customary. A few stones, now much overgrown may be the foundations of a masonry well-head. Tithe Schedule, No. 283 - Visited, 3rd May, 1922. Castles, Upper-, West-, Middle-

(6 in. Ord. Surv. sheet, Pem. 40 N.+ lat. 510 41 52 ", long. 40 54 l2 ").

Six fields, doubtless formerly one, abutting on Point Lane, half a mile West of the parish church; they have long been under cultivation, and no trace now remains of any earthwork which may have stood upon them.

Stone Park.

On this field, belonging to Paskeston Farm, stood an erect stone, until its removal a few years ago as an obstruction. In 1922 it lay in a ditch beneath the west hedge, partly concealed by soil.  Tithe Schedule, No. 216.

Quern Stones.

Two perfect upper quern stones, said to have been found some years ago in the parish,  were  preserved in the rectory garden but are now in the church.

COSHESTON  HALL.

Acc to Mjr Francis Jones.

On 26 August 1556 Gelly Barret, gentlemen, of Gellyswick and his wife Mary sold  "a tenement called the Hall of Cosheston" to John Rossant of Nash, husbandman, and Isabel his wife, and it remained in the ownership of the Rossant family for several generations. In 1659 the will of John Rossant of Cosheston, yeoman, mentions the  "house called the Hall of Cosheston". His son, Francis, was assessed at two hearths in 1670. In 1786 the Hall was owned and occupied by. Abraham Leach.

Just north of Cosheston village there was a farm called Snailton owned and occupied by Reverend William Holcombe. For a time the Allen family were in occupation including Seymour Phillips Allen (High Sheriff 1850) and his wife Lady Catherine, daughter of the 4th Earl of Portsmouth. Later, the name was changed to Woodfield and in 1894 it was occupied by George Stepney Gulston, and shortly afterwards bought by Major Ivor, afterwards Major-General Sir lvor Philipps, K.C.B., D.S.O., who enlarged the house and gave it the name Cosheston Hall. The General died in 1940, and afterwards it was the seat of his daughter, Mrs. Basil Rarnsden, and her son, Major Ivor Ramsden, M.B.E. High Sheriff  l967 now one of H.M. Gentlemen at Arms who is the present owner-occupier, and is a Deputy Lieutenant.

The Hall was entirely rebuilt in the mid 19th century.

Vaughan          John                   1670            Cosheaton                            Pembrokeshire Hearths    P

Allen                Elizabeth           1670            Cosheston                             Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h

Arnold             Mathew              1670            Cosheston                             Pembrokeshire Hearth P

 Bathoe           Dorothie             1670            Cosheston                             Pembrokeshire Hearth  P

Beede              Thomas              1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearths 2h

Brookes           Jane                   1670            Cosheston                              Pembroeshire Hearths 1h

Browne            Griffith             1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P

Bryn                Mary                  1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P

Brynne             Henry                1670            Cosheston                             Pembrokeshire Haearth P                                                                       

Collin              Griffith             1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                       

David              Morgan  Rev  1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearths      Rector of Cosheston.                                     

David               Rowland          1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

David               John                1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h                                                                           

David               George             1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths   1h                                                                        

 David              Richard           1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                         

Evans               Widdowe         1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth  P                                                                       

Evans               John                1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h                                                                          

 Fowler            John                1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P

Fowler             Hugh               1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P

Froyne             Richard           1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h

Griffith            Henry              1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearth P 

Hancocke         John               1670            Cosheston                              Pembrokeshire Hearths  P  

Jermine            Joan               1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 2h 

Jones               Richard           1670            Cosheston                               Pembroeshire Hearths 2h

Jones Jnr         Richard          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P   

Long                Phillip            1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P

 Long                Peter              1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                         

Long                Hugh              1670            Cosheston                                Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

Marchent          Phillip           1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths                                                                              

Morgan             William         1670            Cosheston                               Pembrkeshire Hearth P                                                                        

 Oliver              Francis          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                         

Palmer              Francis          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth  P                                                                       

Peirce               Thomas          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths P                                                                       

Penry               Morris             1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h                                                                           

Powell              Mary               1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths  3h                                                                           

Pritchard          Richard          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

Proute              Phillip            1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

Reynold            Charles          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

Reynold            Roger             1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

Rossant            John              1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h                                                                           

Rossant             Francis          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 2h                                                                          

Sanders            Henry             1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                                                                        

Sayse                 Rice                1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths   1h                                                                          

Sayse                 Miles              1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h                                                                           

Stiffbrow           John              1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths  1h  

Teague              Widdowe        1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                            

Thomas             Griffith          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P   

Waughan          Widdowe        1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearth P                          

Wills                 Griffith          1670            Cosheston                               Pembrokeshire Hearths 1h    

Wills                 John              1670            Cosheston                               Pembroeshire Hearths 1h

Land Tax 1791

PARISH AND PROPERTY                       SURNAME             FORENAMES

Cosheston Back Tenement                               Lowless             John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Back Tenement                               Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston Back Tenement                               Owen                Lady  (owner)      

Cosheston Back Tenement                               Phillips            Benj.  (tenant)    

Cosheston Back Tenement                               Rickson             William (tenant)   

Cosheston Back Tenement                               Wright              Richard (owner)    

Cosheston Brother Hill                                       Gwyther             Thos (tenant)      

Cosheston Brother Hill                                       Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston Cross Tenement                               Evans               John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Cross Tenement                               Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston East Tenement                                 Hancock             Rev Thos  (tenant) 

Cosheston East Tenement                                 Mathias             Joseph  (tenant)   

Cosheston East Tenement                                 Mears               John (owner)        

Cosheston East Tenement                                 Scott               Elizabeth  (tenant)

Cosheston Glebe                                                  Holcombe            Rev J  (owner)     

Cosheston Hall                                                    Leach               Abram  (owner)     

Cosheston Lawrenny Ferry                               Barger              John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Lawrenny Ferry                                Canton              John (tenant)      

Cosheston Lawrenny Ferry                               Cousins             John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Lawrenny Ferry                               Owen                Lady  (owner)      

Cosheston Lawrenny Ferry                               Tasker              John  (owner)      

Cosheston Lawrreny Ferry                                 Campbell            John  (owner)      

Cosheston Lawrreny Ferry                                 Hancock             Elizabeth  (tenant)

Cosheston Little Mayeston                               Bargor              John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Little Mayeston                               Phillips            William (owner)    

Cosheston Little Mountain                                Leach               Abram  (owner)     

Cosheston Little Mountain                                Purser              William  (tenant)  

Cosheston Lower Tenement                             Hancock             Hugh  (tenant)     

Cosheston Lower Tenement                             Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston Lower Tenement                             Phillips            Henry  (tenant)    

Cosheston Lowey                                                Garrot              John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Lowey                                                Tasker              John  (owner)      

Cosheston Mayeston                                          Hancock             Rev Thos  (tenant) 

Cosheston Mayeston                                           John                William  (tenant)  

Cosheston Mayeston                                          Phillips            William  (owner)   

Cosheston Mayeston                                          Williams            Mrs  (tenant)      

Cosheston Middle Tenement                            Dally               John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Middle Tenement                            Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston Middle Tenement                            Owen                Lady  (owner)      

Cosheston Middle Tenement                            Williams            Margaret  (owner)  

Cosheston Paskeston                                          Butler              Peter (owner)       

Cosheston Paskeston                                          Roch                Nicholas  (owner)  

Cosheston Prudence Meadow                          Barlow              Hugh (owner)       

Cosheston Prudence Meadow                          Lowless             Henry  (tenant)    

Cosheston Snailston                                           Holcombe            Rev J  (owner)     

Cosheston Sullan                                                 Tasker              John  (owner)      

Cosheston Towns End                                        Morgan              David  (owner)     

Cosheston Warreston                                         Mathias             John  (tenant)     

Cosheston Warreston                                         Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston West Tenement                                Barlow              Hugh  (owner)      

Cosheston West Tenement                                Brinn               John  (tenant)     

Cosheston West Tenement                                Campbell            John (owner)       

Cosheston West Tenement                                Hicks               Rev James (tenant) 

Cosheston West Tenement                                John                David  (tenant)    

Cosheston West Tenement                                Mears               John  (owner)      

Cosheston the Mill                                              Mears               John (owner)       

Cosheston the Mill                                              Thomas              Thos  (tenant)     

Historical Records -

1307 September 20

Inq. Post Mortem, C Edward II File 4(1) (Cal p 21a).

Lands etc of Joan de Valencia, Countess of Pembroke.

m.1 Writ 20 Sept 1307

m.4 The Marches of Wales. Inq., Thursday after St Luke, 1 Edward

II. Pembroke.  Jurors;  Richard de Stakepol,kt, David de la Roche, Stephen Perrot, Alexander Robelin, Robert Vacchan, William de Cripping, Walter berth, David de Villa Pattricii, Benedict de Horston, John Longe, John Coci, Ralph Benger.

 Extent ; The castle of Pembroke which is worth nothing yearly (quia custuosum); 2 carucates of land, each carucate worth yearly 66s 8d; 200 burgages worth 10 yearly, half payable at Easter, and the other half at Michaelmas; 3 water mills paying 13 6s 8d yearly at the aforesaid times; the pleas and perquisites together with the tolls are worth 6s 8d yearly; the piscaries (legal right to fish)are worth 6s 8d yearly; the prise of beer 60s. do.; 7a. of meadow worth 14s yearly; the rent of Karreu for the ward of the castle of Pembroke, 28s at Michaelmas; rent of Stackpole 18s payable in equal sums at the aforementioned times; do Kylvegy, 4s; Costeyniston 8s; Gilcop 4s; Gonedon 4s; Opeton 4s; Seynt Syrone, 5s; Manynerbir, 17s; Mynwere 4s; Esse 1d. all payable at the aforesaid two terms; the pleas and perquisites of the  "County" of Pembroke are worth yearly  6 13s 4d; pleas and perquisites of the pleas of Castle Gate (Cur Porte Castri), 100s yearly; perquisites of the pleas of obligation, 13s 4d yearly.

Aymer, etc., is next heir.

1324 August 20 Pembroke.

C Edward II File 85.

Extent made before John de Hamptona, Kings escheator, at Pembroke 20 August 1324 Jurors  Walter Maeleufaut, Walter de Castro, John Keiez (Kneghey) John Melin, Walter Harald; Stephen Perot, Walter Eliot; Wioti de Laureny, John Cradok ( John de Luny) William de Crippynes, Thomas Martin, and John Scorlags.

[as per C Edward II file 84 plus following]

Aymer had in the county of Pembroch 25 1/2 knights fees and one tenth knights fee, whereof :

Costyneston 2 knights fees held by John Wogan, John Beneger and William Robelyn, worth yearly 40m (mark = 13s 8d).

1348 September 24   Pembroke

Writ of certiorari de feodis etc., to John de Shol, escheator in Hereford and the adjacent March of Wales, 24 September, 22

Edward III Extent of all fees and advowsons of churches in the county of Pembroke, made at Pembroke on Thursday in the feast of St Michael de Monte Tumba, 22 Edward III.

 Jurors; John Cantrel, William Adam, William Robelyn, Thomas de Castro, Andrew Wysman, John Beneger..... John Rou, John Robyn, William Parttrahan, John Hilton and Henry Beneger.

Laurence de Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, had in the county of Pembroke 251/2 knights fees and three carucates of land, viz;

Costenyston, two fees held by Thomas Morgan. William Robelyn and Ralph Benger's heirs, worth yearly 40m

1353 June 6

Chancery Misc. Inquisition No 168.

Writ dated 6 June Edward III, touching the knight's fees held by the late Laurence de Hastings, Earl of Pembroke.

Inquisition at Pembroke 6 April 27 Edward III, before Thomas de Aston.

Jurors: John Melyn, William Parthcorn, Thomas Castel, Richard ..rchard, John Wydelok, John Suteri, John Coke, David ap Llewelyn Vaughan, John Castel de fflemyneston, John..... Edward Castel, John Bisschop.

William Robelyn, on his death (Thursday n.a. St Trinity 23 Edward III) held of the demesne of Pembroke 2 1/2 carucates of  land in Costeyniston by military service and doing suit to the Court of the gate of the castle of Pembroke, and worth 40s yearly; also the free tenants of the said William pay a yearly rent of 4s 4d. Also he held of John de Carrewe kt., three bovates of land in le thorne, worth yearly 6s.,; and Robert, son of the said William, is his heir and was 13 years and more at the time of his fathers death; his marriage is worth 20.

1376 20 November

I.P.M., Edward III,  248,  f. 105

Writ of certiorari de feodis,  d. 20 November,  49 Edward III. Edward de Brigg.   Extent.  .. 49 Edward III.

Jurors:  Richard de Houton,  Roger Creytol,  Henry Brace, Richard de Brompton, John de Mulle,  Hugh Wrembrugge,  Walter Keveryk,  Walter Bisshewall, John Kawerose,  Walter Rouse, Henry ap Ieuan,  Walter Heynes.

 John de Hastinges late Earl of Pembroke,  deceased,  held the undermentioned  fees and advowsons of the king in chief,  two knights fees in Costyneston,  which William Robelyn, Thomas Wogan and Ralph Beneger formerly held,  worth in gross 21 yearly.

1377

Richard II seized the priory of Pembroke at which time an extent of its possessions was taken.

Extenta Prioratus de Pembrochia 1 Ric II.

Portiones pertin ad dictum Prioratum.

Ecclesia de Costynton val per annum xs.

1488 12 February.

PASKESTON HALL.

Paskeston Hall, the earliest part of which is a three-storey traditional style house dating from c. 1730. The hall itself was added some 120 years later. The family name associated with the building of the original house is that of Nicholas Roche, a High Sheriff of Pembroke-shire.

The house is about  a mile north-west of Milton village, and built in the Georgian style, with a modern extension to one gable end. The first-known family at Paskeston were yeomen, probably tenants, namely David Scurlock, yeoman (1559), George Ellys, gent. (1617) and William Jermin, gent. (1626) son of Rees Jermin, yeoman, after which came John Rossant, (1659) son and heir of James Rossant of Cosheston, yeoman The Rossants belonged to the minor gentry and lived at Paskeston during the period 1659-1780, and acquired a small estate, the last of whom we find at Paskeston, being John Lewes Rossant, gent., and Mary his wife and John Rossant and John Lewes Rossant, gent., all of whom were living there in 1780.

It is likely that there was a farm as well as the mansion there, as early as 1724; Nicholas Rock of Paskeston, was High Sheriff in 1729, and in his will, proved in 1759, he mentions his sons, Nicholas, Mark, and George, and  "my kinsman "Thomas Roch of Butterhill. He was succeeded by his son Nicholas Roch of Cosheston, who succeeded his uncle (who was still there in 1815). Nicholas Roch of Paskeston died there in 1866, and was followed by his son, also named Nicholas Roch who is included in the Landowners Return of 1873 as owning 944 acres.

The next gentry family there was that of Allen (kinsman of the Cresselly stock), who were mentioned at Paskeston in 1894. Newton Seymour Allen  DSO of Paskeston was High Sheriff in 1919 and died in 1934.

Historic People.

On 16th July 1648 Oliver Cromwell invited the Rev. Peregine Phillips of Cosheston to preach before him and his officers he was also vicar of Monkton, St. Marys (Pembroke)as well as Cosheston. Phillips must have been well known to most of them, for notwithstanding the inconveniences of the siege he preferred to reside in his parish of Monkton rather than in the comparatively peaceful Cosheston.

Peregrine Phillips was the son of that Vicar of Amroth who declined to read the Book of Sports, and suffered accordingly; probably in consequense of the fathers firmness the son found friends. Sir Hugh Owen had given him the preferment of Monkton; Roger Lort that of St. Marys, Pembroke; and he obtained Cosheston through the interest of Sir John Meyrick. He had been chosen one of the committee to inquire into the conduct of ministers; but all this availed him nothing during the siege, for the hungry Parliamentarian troopers searched his house so diligently that he was obliged to secrete his scanty stock of flour in the bolster of his bed. yet Phillips stood to his post and with him remained a certain plucky servant-maid who was in the habit of milking the parsons cow,  "caring nought for the storm of shot and shell which hurtled overhead ".

A gable end in the village of Monkton  still in Laws time marked the site of Phillips old vicarage.

Land Tax 1670

Henry etc. to H. bishop of St. Davids, greeting: we command you that you do not for any liberty omit to enter and cause to be levied for us of goods, benefices, and ecclesiastical possessions, of the underwritten churches in your diocese the sums written by parcels below, namely of the church of the town of Cosheston 44s.

1513.

Henry king of England etc.,. to Edward etc., bishop of St David's greeting. Whereas you and the rest of the prelates and clergy of the province of Canterbury assembled in the last convocation or holy synod of such prelates and clergy in the church of the divine Paul, London, begun and celebrated on 6 February in the year 1511-12 according to the course and computation of the English Church and continued day by day unto and on 17 December then next following granted unto us for the defence and protection of the  Anglican Church and this our famous realm of England as well as to allay and extirpate heresies and schisms in the church universal which  in these days flourish more than usually, under the manners, forms, conditions, and exceptions written below , not otherwise not in any other manner , four tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices and possessions whatsoever , also of all benefices and possessions of alien priories whatsoever , being in the hands of whatsoever ecclesiastics or secular men of the said province, the specific exceptions within written only excepted, to be levied, collected and paid in the manner, form and terms following, namely one and the first tenth on the feast of St Martin in the winter next to come which will be in the year 1513, the second truely on the feast of St Peter ad Vincula then next to come which will be in the year 1514, and the third on the feast of the Holy apostles Phillip and James which will be in the year 1515, the fourth and last tenth truly on the feast of the said Apostles which will be in the year 1516 saving from the grant, levy, and payment of the said tenth etc., as it more fully appears in the said writ of the king hanging on the file of the year 1513.

The goods, church possessions and benefices, in the diocese of St David's which have been diminished, impoverished, and other destroyed by wars, fires, ruins, inundations of rivers and other misfortunes and chances deservedly to be excused from payment of the same four tenths according to the force etc., of the grant of the same by the authority of the said convocation follow and are these as appears on the other part of the folio here following etc.

In the archdeaconry of St Davids are excepted the churches here underwritten:-

In the deanery of Pembroke  the underwritten churches are excepted:

Cosheston.

1534. The Rector's annual income at Cosheston was calculated as being 10.

1650.  Steven Love a Londoner was appointed to the living of Cosheston as a result of the work of the Propagation Committee. He became a member of the Green Meeting  in Haverfordwest. He later became minister St Thomas and St Mary's (1652) in Haverfordwest. X ref this to the Haverfordwest plague history where he and his wife did so much work

1690 Thomas Bowen of Cosheston refused to take the oath of allegiance.

1794. circa [St Petrox]

extract from a Letter from Cha[rle]s Pigott Pritchett, rural dean of Pembroke, to William Stuart Bishzp of St Davids.

..... The state of the churches in my district is now become so decent and in tolerable order that it is unnecessary for me to trouble your lordship with particulars. I wish I had as good an account to give of many of the vicarage houses. That of Nangle stands in most deplorable condition, next to it Mannerbier, St Twinnels and the vicarage at Stackpole want thorough repairs.

List of subscribers to the fund for the sons of the clergy.

Revd. J. Holcombe  Cosheston             1 1s 0d

Church in Wales MS AD/AET 1209 Pembrokeshire life 1572 1843.

1834 Topographical Dictionary of Wales.

COSHESTON,  2 miles (N.) from Pembroke, containing 678 inhabitants. The village is beautifulIy situated on the Southern declivity of a hill, the base of which is washed by an estuary of Milford Haven, navigable for barges. The living is a discharged rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of St. Davids, rated in the kings books at 11  12s  11d and in the patronage of Sir John Owen, Bart. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture with a low tower surmounted by a spire. The poor children of this parish are admissible into the National school at Pembroke. John Jones, Esq., M.D., in 1698 bequeathed certain property for apprenticing poor children, and the relief of the aged and infirm, of the four parishes of Lawrenny, Cosheston, St. Davids, and Lampeter - Velvrey, with a discretionary power to his brother, the Rev. Mr. Jones, as executor, to add other parishes: of the produce of this charity, Cosheston, receives a sum amounting to about 30 per annum, which is appropriated agreeably to the directions of the testator. The average annual expenditure for the support of the poor amounts to 137.   15s

Elyet               Mathias               1543            Cossheston                             PRO 223/423                             Churchwarden

Mendous         Thomas              1543            Cossheston                              PRO223/423                              Churchwarden

Education

 1811  Acc /to the visitation records there was a schoolmaster in Cosheston.

1847  Report on the State of Education in Wales.

PARISH OF COSHESTON, - on the 18th of December I Visited the above parish.

The only School at that time in it was a dame-school in Coshestan village.

This school has been closed for the week previous on account of the severe weather. It was held in a room, part of a dwelling house. The furniture consisted of two square tables, which (the mistress told me) were exchanged when the scholars were in attendance, for benches, and four chairs. There was a bed in the room, which took up a great part of it.

There had been another school in the parish at a place called Lawrenny Ferry, but it had been discontinued for a week; previous to the time of my visit. The master of this latter school was not considered to be in his right mind. Indeed, from what I saw of him, and the conversation I had with him, I should say  that he was certainly very strange. He told me that his scholars had all deserted him lately and that he was looking out for a situation - what he would like to have was a situation as private tutor in a gentleman's family. He would be satisfied with 6s. per week and his board and lodgings. He said he could teach grammar  right well;" and when I asked him what he taught beside, the answer was  "Oh, I teaches Latin, plane and spherical trigonometry, navigation and the Lunars."

There was one Dissenting chapel, but no Sunday-school held in it.

The average of wages for labourers in this parish was 9s. per week on their own finding

Such children as went to any school went to Pater.

DAVID LEWIS,

I was favoured with the following letter by M. A. Roche, Esq., which contains many remarks of great practical value:-  Pashiston, Pembroke, January 5, 1847

Sir

I am sorry not to have seen your Assistant when he visited this parish, I should like to have had with him some conversation. I must, therefore, take the liberty of troubling you with this letter.

Ten years ago, when my father came to reside in this Parish, where he possesses an estate - and is the only resident landowner, I was anxious to get establish, at least, a Sunday-school; which was effected by the co operation of others and of the family of the Rev. Mr. Holcombe the late rector. The population of this parish is under 600 souls; we average between 40 and 50 children between the ages of 5 and 16 years, principally between the aces of 7 and 14 years, at the school; the whole number of children between 5 and 16 years of age, in the parish being I should guess, about 70 or 80. The teachers at present are the Rev. Mr. Bowling the rector, Mrs. Bowling, another lady, and myself, besides a paid schoolmaster.

The fortune of the school has continued almost the same, though with a little variation. At first it was a novelty, then it was treated with indifference, but now I fancy in some instances I perceive the indifference wearing off. But still the parents seem to consider education, or, I should rather say, the mere prelude to education, such as reading and writing arerather as an accomplishment, as a rich person would regard German or Italian, than as a necessary thing so that very little excuse is sufficient for their negligence in not sending their children and a very little affront sufficient for their withdrawing them. On one or two occasions, one has had to exert all ones influence and management to keep the affair together. The parent however are always very particular in sending their children neat and clean and want of shoes and clothes is the most fertile cause of occasional absence

I need scarcely say, that during a couple of hours once a-week it is impossible to impart more than the merest pittance of knowledge. I have myself been most anxious to get my Pupils to understand what they read and learn, and for that Purpose I have discarded all explanatory books, and use only the Bible and the Church Catechism, for I have never yet seen an explanatory book that, for such as Sunday-school children, did not require more explanation than what it professed to explain; and the consequence is, that the children learn by rote the explanation as well as the thing to be explained. Indeed, l have sometimes found that a viva voca explanation has been remembered by rote; and though the difficulty of making them understand is certainly not insuperable, yet it is much greater than any one would suppose that had not had some years" experience in it. in fact, I am sure that this great difficulty forms a very great characteristic difference between the schools of the poor and of the rich. I have found much advantage in giving questions in writings to be answered in writings takings care that they shall be different for each child. I also have lately made some of them learn Watts's Hymns, which they do with great pleasure we do not teach writing.

Besides our school, there is another Sunday Schools attached to a Dissenting chapel; it is not, I understand, largely attended, and was, I believe, set up for the convenience of a few residents, about it, which is at the end of the parish. For I am most happy to say we are free from almost all, if not altogether all, religious animosity; we are not yet sufficiently en-lightened for that.

Some  parents have managed to get their children taught to write and there has been generally some day-school in the parish. At present there happen to be two, but the worst that I ever recollect. These schools are undertaken by persons for their livelihoods or to assist it by such scanty earnings. And this is a point which cannot be too much insisted on, the incapacity of the schoolmasters or schoolmistresses in this neighbourhood. Nothing will ever be effected until a a complete change is made in these, but that will require far greater funds. A teacher never thinks of explaining -anything; and though children are sometime taught to read; yet they learn with so much carelessness that it is often on Sundays my chief employment to get my pupils out of the slovenly habits of pronunciation, omitting in reading all the little words, &c., acquired during the week. I scarcely know whether our school is worth the trouble that I have imposed on you is reading this long letter; but so far as such a trifling institution can extend it has not been without benefit, were it only that by the attention of one of the lady-teachers some children have, by going there only, been taught to read very well, and I was anxious to attempt to afford you some notion of a little Welsh Sunday-school in an agricultural district, and the disposition entertained by the inhabitants towards being instructed,

 I have, &c.

M. A. ROCHE.

In 1863 a school was built in the village near the Church originally as a Church school.

Today it is still used as a Primary School.

Industry.

1860's.

David Morgan a builder from Jeffeston who had build Laws St Pembroke Dock and his son-in-law, Thomas Howell  a shipwright at Neyland  were partners at Whalcwm Cosheston in a thriving shipbuilding business in which they used oak trees growing on the banks of the Haven. They built ships to order in their yard for Liverpool captains: and it was the custom for the captain who was to buy the ship to stay at Cosheston for some time before his ship was launched so that he could supervise final details. This business prospered until the coming of ironclad ships, when ships built of oak were gradually superseded.

Ships built        1860's             4  total 88 tons

                         1870's            3 total 201 tons

                        1880's             1 total 27 tons.

The partners had another line of business at Coshestan - a Chemical Works, primarily with the object of wasting none of the spare products from the Shipbuilding Yard. In time their most important product was naphtha, and this with other compounds and charcoal, they sold, chiefly to Messrs. Curtis and Sarvey, of Neath, manufacturers of explosives. Some by products as well as oak bark went to the Tannery in Pembroke.

Thomas Howells  daughters Daisy, Lillian and Florence were writers as was their niece Avis Howells.

Population

1563  number of households 39

1670 number recorded for Hearth Tax 52

1801 number of families   90 with a total of 401 people

It is interesting that the census returns for 1951 record a total of 381

Creswell Quay

1834 Acc to Topigraphical Dictionary of Wales   S Lewis.

Creswell Quay - a village situated at the point of junction of three parishes of Lawrenny, Carew and  Jeffreston in the hundred of Narberth county of Pembroke  7 1/2  miles NE from Pembroke. The population is returned with the respective parishes.

It is situated on an estuary  of Milford Haven and in each of the three parishes there is a small quay for the the convenience of shipping the coal and culm from the miles with which this district abounds. From twenty to thirty thousand tons have been annually shipped from this place for exportation; but the quantity has recently much diminished and at present not more than six thousand tons are annually shipped generally in vessels of about eighty tons burden.

Allen               John Hensleigh      1839            Cresswell           Carew parish        Pembs Hist 1972    Owned 819  acres Cresswell                                 

Wilson              Hugh                1815 Feb 22     Cresswell Quay                          Harcourt Powell MS 

Crinow

1849 Acc/to Topographical Dictionary of Wales -  S Lewis.

CRINOW, a parish, in the union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 1 mile (E.) from Narberth; containing 53 inhabitants.

This parish, though in the hundred of Dungleddy, is almost entirely surrounded by that of Narberth: and, with the exception of a very small portion, belongs to the daughters and co-heiresses of the late Roger Eaton, Esq., whose elegant mansion of Park Glbs is situated within its limits.

The living is a rectory not in charge, endowed with 600 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; net income, 79: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of 49. 16., and there is a glebe of one acre, valued at 3 per annum. The church is a very small edifice, without tower or spire; but of late years it has been repaired and beautified, and rendered one of the neatest churches in the county. A Sunday school is supported by Miss Eaton.

Acc/to Pembrokeshire parsons.

1594 it was in the patronage of the Crown. - Owen's Pem. This church would appear to have been formerly called Llandeilo Velfrey. - Ibid, pt. I, p. 166.

Under the heading "Not in Charge": - Craney R.

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994.

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features.

Croesgoch        (829303).

Hamlet on the St David's to Mathry road. Nearby is the Mesur y Dorth stone which has on it an incised stone cross in a circle. Traditionally used as a very early trading standard, in times of scarcity the diameter of a loaf of bread had to equal that of the circle.

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Cronware         -  Crunwere/Crunwear

NOTE:This Parish has always been a mystery to me. The ancient Church is set two fields away from the road and although I took time on several Sundays to look round the fields I could find no evidence of the remains of any buildings. I visited several times to take Services and I asked some of the congregation but could not get an explanation. One told me that the people who lived near the Church had all died in the plague of the 1660s but I could find no evidence of that. I was also told that the Church had been attached to a grange of the Monastery at Pembroke, yes, there is a very strong connection with Pembroke Priory but I could not find any evidence of a Grange. Several times we would have a discussion after the Service at which suggestions were made and I would like to thank all the congregation for the warm welcome they always gave me as well as the help and encouragement in my research. B H J H.

Acc/to The Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments.

The Parish Church (6 in. Ord. Surv. sheet, Pem. 36 N.W. Ded : St. Elidyr: Diocese and archdeaconry of St. David's rural deanery of Narberth.

The church consists of nave (32 feet by 18 feet), chancel (15 feet by 12 feet), north transept (l.4 feet by 11 feet), south transept (14 feet by 11 feet), and western tower (17 feet north and south by 16 feet east and west). It was rebuilt in 1843, and subsequently restored (1878), with the exception of the tower and north transept. The tower is of the regular Pembrokeshire type of three storeys, the lowest having a plain vault. It is lighted with narrow loops. The west door is blocked , the window above is modern. The font is modern. - Visited, 20th May, 1915.

Glinne, Notes, Arch. Camb., 1888, V, v, 134.

The church is included as a Telio foundation in the early list of churches claimed by the see of Llandaf; under the name Lann Cronnguern (Book of LLan Dav, 255), and the proper form of the parish name is doubtless Cronwern. The episcopal register for 1486 (ed. Hon. Society of Cymmrodorion) terms it the parish church of St. Teliou (misprinted Telion).

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter (1994).

Cunwear    St Elidyr   SN  186107

Only the vaulted tower with a NE stair turret and a blocked west doorway and the north transept of this 13c cruciform church have survived unrebuilt. It could be that Crunwere became the property of Pembroke Priory at this time - it certainly was the property of the Priory.

Kings Piece

(6 in. Ord. Surv. sheet, Pem. 30 SW ; lat 51# 46"  7  ", long. 4# 38  30 The name of these two fields, doubtless formerly one, is still in use, but nothing is known of the origin of the designation. the first (Tithe Schedule, No. 30) is part of the ancient glebe. Both may have been monastic land which fell into the hands of the Crown at the Dissolution, but no record of their devolution has been met with. - Visited, 20th May, 1915.

Parc Garw.

(6 in. Ord. Sur. sheet, Pem. 30 S.V. ; lat. 51# 6" 8 ", long. 38" 8#). This appears as Parc garn in the Tithe Survey (No 287 ), but is known locally as Parc Garw. There is no antiquity. - Visited, 20th May, 1915.

 Historical Records

1204-1214

 Not  dated Grant  by  William  Marshall,  earl  of  Pembroke,  for  the  souls  of  himself,   Isabella  ,  his  wife,  and  all  his  ancestors  and  heirs,  to  the  church  of  St  John   the  Evangelist  and  St  Nicholas  the  Confessor,  of  Pembroch,  and  the  monks  there   of  the  tithes  of  his  vills  of  Penbroke,  Tynbeh,  and  Castle  Martin,  in  free   alms.  Witnesses:  Geoffrey,  bishop  of  St  Davids  Robert,  son  of  Richard,   Geoffrey  son  of  Robert,  Ralph  Bluet,  Nicholas  Avenel.

(From  an  inspeximus  5  Edward  III,  Cal  Pat  Rolls  1330-1334  p67   Dugdale ,  Mon.,  Vol  IV  p321)  [Crunwere could well have been included in this grant B H J H].

1377

Richard II seized the priory a second time at which time an extent of its possessions was taken.

Extenta Prioratus de Pembrochia 1 Ric II (I have checked this against the original in the Records Office London. B.H.J. Hughes)

Ecclesia pertin ad dictum Prioratum

Ecclessia de Crynwer redd.   per annum ad eosdem terminos ijs.

 1399

Henry IV  issued  a  writ  of  protection  to  Pembroke  Priory (Episc  Acts  pp247,254,255).

1407 12 June

Also  on 12 June, in the year above, at London the bishop authorised an exchange between Sirs James Vynor, then rector of the parish church of Freystrop, and Thomas Broun, then rector of Cronwer, of his diocese, and the causes of such exchange having been found lawful and approved and their resignations because of the said exchange of the benefices mentioned having been duly made by Sir Richard Jordan, priest, of the said diocese of St Davids proctor of the aforesaid Sir James Vynor etc., as well as by the aforesaid Thomas Broun, then present there in person, and admitted by the bishop himself, the same bishop admitted the aforesaid Sir Thomas Broun to the aforesaid chirch of Freystrop at the presentation of the prior and convent of Pylle of the order of  St Benedict of Tiron, patrons of the said church etc.,. and subsequently on the same day and at the same place, the aforesaid bishop admitted the aforesaid Sir James Vynor  in the person of his proctor aforesaid etc., to the church of Cronwer aforesaid at the presentation of Sir Henry, king of England, etc., and vice-patron by reason of the temporalities of the priory of St Nicholas, Pembroke, being in his hand on account of the war between him and his French adversaries, patron of the same church; and instituted him as rector, etc.

1414 The Alien priorys, of which Pembroke Priory was one, were seized by the Crown in 1414 by Henry V who apportioned some out to relatives others were used to endow the foundation of educational establishments at Eton and Cambridge. Archbishop Chicheley also benefited. It is believed that soon after Humphrey Duke of Gloucester acquired the estates he apportioned some to the abbey of St Albans.

They gave some of this to other religious establishments - which is how St Mary's Tenby came to belong to a convent run as a brothel.

1418 1st July Southampton.

Patent Roll, 5 Henry V,m.8  (Cal.,p.129).

Whereas the King's brother Humphrey Duke of Gloucester holds of the king, among other premises, the castle, town and Lordship of Pembroke, the manor called "la  Priorie" of Pembroke.

1433 8th July Westminster Patent Roll 11 Henry VI m.1.pt 2 (Cal pp298-299).

On 3 September, in his first year, (1413) Henry V granted to the present King's Uncle, Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, the  name  of  Humphrey  de  Lancastre, the alien priory of Pembroke in tail during the war with France and by other letters  patent, dated at Leicester 16th May in the second year, he advanced him to be Earl of Pembroke and then Duke of Gloucester for his life, with 20 a year to support his estate as Earl and 40 to support his estate as Duke, out  of  the  issues  of  the county of Pembroke by the hands of the sheriff.

(Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester died  without heir of his body and acc/to Patent Roll 21 Henry VI pt 2 m1 dated 1443 27 Feb and 26 Henry VI pt  2 m9 William de la Pole earl of Suffolk and Alice his wife were given  the  titles   of Earl and countess of Pembroke and the estates in tail male  -  for  a   contemporary  copy  of  these  letters  patent  see  Harl.  Ch,  51  H  10  (Brit.  Museum).

1461

Abbot Whethanstede procured a confirmation of the grant from King Edward IV who again confirmed the gift in the 27th year of his reign.

1480

According to the Wallingford Registry of St Albans Monastery Hertfordshire it appears that the Abbot of St Albans was at that date patron of the following Rectories and Vicarages in Pembrokeshire.

Rectoria de Cranwer.

The Mayor and Burgesses of Tenby were granted leave to nominate two chaplains in the parish church of Crownweare, with the donation of the hermitage of St David's near Pembroke (Pembrokeshire Antiquities p36).

1543

Gwillim             John                1543            Cronwer                                 Lay Subsidies PRO 223/423               Churchwarden  

 Iscans (Istance)    Phillip        1543            Cronwer                                 Lay subsidies  PRO 223/423              Churchwarden   

Acc/to Topographical Dictionary of Wales - S Lewis.

CRONWERE (CRUNWEAR), a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Narberth; containing 282 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the eastern confines of the county, a short distance south of the turnpike-road from Laugharne to Narberth. It is bounded on the north by Lampeter, on the south by Amroath, on the west by Ludchurch, and on the east by Carmarthenshire, from which it is separated by a small brook. The number of acres is about 2000, of which 1500 are arable, and 500 pasture. The surface is of a hilly character: the soil is various; red earth, affording rich pasture, extends across a portion of the parish in a direction from north to south; other parts are cold and sterile, with a subsoil of clay; the earth covering the limestone portion is good, but liable to become soon parched and dry. There is a village named Lanteague, the only one in the parish; also a corn-mill, and a mill where the coarse cloth of the country is prepared and dyed: a quarry is likewise worked, producing limestone of fine quality.

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the King's books at 6. 16s. 10d., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of 105; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe contains sixty-eight acres, valued at 50 per annum.

The church, dedicated to St. Elidyr, is a very ancient structure, now nearly in ruins, and contains 200 sittings. A Sunday school was established in the year 1820.

Acc/to State of Education in Wales 1847.

Parish of Cronware.

The Rev. W. D. Phillips, Vicar, informed me that the labourers wages with food are from 9d to 10d per day; without food 1s and 1s 3d in winter. Farm servants 5 to 9 and female servants 3 to 7 per year.

Masons and Carpenters 1s 10d to 2s on their own provisions and 1s 2d with food.

There is no gratuitous education of any kind on weekdays in the parish - many parents send their children to schools at Tavenspite and Amroth. The children have to learn the Church Catechism; it is compulsory at the former; but most children learn it at the latter.

Generally speaking, the people are remarkable for their good character.

The wealthier class of farmers only are well educated; the smaller farmers are very illiterate and cannot afford to give their children any education.

December 4th 1846;     Wm. Morris assistant.

Census of Religious buildings.

Area 1690 acres

Population 131 males   158 females

Crunwear Parish Church

Endowed tithe 105, glebe 40 Space free 60 other 120.

Present - Evening 150

Remarks: The service is alternately Morning and evening. The Congregation in the summer months is larger. The net value is of course below the statement above - William Phillips, Rector.

Acc/to Lewis - discharged rectory rated at 6 16s 10 1/2d in the patronage of the Crown 22; net income 100.

1 service in English. Rector is resident.

 ICBS grant of 45 in 1846.

 Mountain Independants

Space   all free

Present - mornings   50

William Phillips  Amroth   Elder

Acc/to the Churches and Chapels of Pembrokeshire.

The records are in the Pembrokeshire County Records office, Haverfordwest.

Baptisms from 1783

Marriages from 1754

Burials from 1783

The Nonconformist Chapel Mountain.

The cause began with occasional preaching before 1854 when the cause was embodied. Up till 1873 members met in a school. The Chapel was built in 1873 and was connected with Carfan then Sardis and Saundersfoot. There were 10 members in 1854  and in 1873 20-25. Records availability - unknown.

 Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons.

This rectory originally formed part of the possessions of Pembroke Priory, and afterwards was granted by the King, together with the other property of that Priory to the Abbey of St. Albans. By 1594 this rectory had come into the hands of the Crown. - Owen's Pem.

Cronwer Rectoria. - Ecclesia ibidem ad presentacionem Abbatis Sancti Albani ande Grifiinus Lloid est rector et valet per annum cum gleba in toto vjH xiijB iiiid. Inde sol" pro visitacione ordinaria quolibet tercio arrno ixa q". Et in visitacione archdiaconi quolibet anno pro sinod-alibus et procur acionib us vs ixd. Elt remanet cl are 6 6s. gid. Inde decirna 12s. 8d. - Valor Eccl.

Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Cronver alias Crinowr alias Crunwear alias Crinowr R. (St. Elider or Eliere). Oidinario quolibet tettio anno, gid. Archidiac" quolibet anno 5s. 9d. Abb. Sti Albani, olim Patr.; The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value 35, 150. King's Books, 6 6s. 1d. - Bacon's Liber Regis.

Crunwere Church was restored in 1878 at a cost of 550. - Arch Camb, ser. v., vol. v., p. 134.

Crymych

Situated at the crossroads of the old Prehistoric Ridgeway track from Prescelly to St Davids and the A478, the old turnpike road from Tenby to Cardigan.

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles.

Standing where 6 roads meet, Crymych is the centre of a large agricultural area. Its growth as a village began when the Whitland and Taf Vale Railway arrived in 1875, on its way to Cardigan. The road from Cardigan to Tenby here crosses the prehistoric ridgeway that runs the length of the Presely Hills.

1 1/2 miles west - Foeldrygarn Hillfort           157336

This is a large Iron Age Hill fort of about 4.5 hectares made up of three contiguous enclosures. Each enclosure is defended by a single unditched rampart of stone and earth. The main entrance to the complex can be seen in the west, and there are also entrances in the south and east. Inside the fort are the remains of at least 220 hut platforms, some of which can be seen clearly as pock-marked depressions. Some of these huts were excavated by the Rev Baring-Gould in 1899, which provided evidence to show that the fort was occupied during Roman times as well as in the Iron age. Finds from the excavations are in Tenby Museum. Within the inner enclosure are the remains of three large cairns. These are burial mounds of possible Bronze age date.

Carn Alw Hillfort 2 1/2 miles west of Crymych.

Cwm-yr-Eglwys        (020400) see also Dinas.

According to legend it is believed that St Brynach founded the original church here 6c.

In 1849 The church, was described as dedicated to St. Brynach, occupies a remarkable situation on the beach, and at spring tides the walls of the churchyard are washed by the sea.

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